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Memoirs : 18 No. 4 

Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 
(Insecta : Hymenoptera : Formicidae) 



R. N. TIWARI 



Edited by the Director, Zoological Survey of India 




wi*H5nift 



Zoological Survey of India 

'M' Block, New Alipore 
Calcutta 700 053 



CITATION 



TIWARI, R.N., 1999. Memoirs : 18 No. 4-Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 
(Insecta : Hymenoptera : Formicidae), IV + 96 pp (PubHshed-Direetor, Zeolegieal Survey of India) 



ISBN 81-85874-09-3 



Published : July, 1999 



© Government ofIndiaJ9P^ 



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CONTENTS 



1. Introduction 

2 

2. Morphology 

. , 3 

3. Terminology 

. , 4 

4. Systematic Account 

5. List of Taxa Incorporated in Systematic 
Account 

83 

6. Distributional Analysis of the Species Recorded 

7. Table Showing Ant Fauna of Southern India 

along with their Distribution in other Regions in India 

93 

8. Summary 

93 

9. Acknowledgements 

93 
1 0. References 



INTRODUCTION 



Ants are very highly developed social animal 
and have got a specialised colonial habit with 
marked degree of division of labour amongsts its 
various constituent casts, They are the premier soil 
turner, channelers of energy, dominatories of the 
insect world and represent the culmination of insect 
evolution in the same sense that human beings 
represent the sumit of vertebrate evolution, even 
then, this tiny creature has remained totally 
neglected by the biologist. 

About one-third of entire animal biomass of 
Amazanian rain forest is composed of ants and 
termites. These two kinds of insects along with 
wasps and bees, cover 75% of the total insect 
biomass (Holldobler and Wilson, 1990). 

While density of ants is so much so, in the 
insect biomass, it is the prime duty of a 
Myrmecologist to assess the distribution of ants in 
its own continent. Southern India being the 
peninsular part of the country, carries more 
importance because of possession of tropical forests 
which provide the suitable environment for the 
growth of insect fauna. The present work is an 
endevour by the ciuthor to contribute to the 
knowledge of ant fauna of Southern India. 

Jerdon ( 1 85 1 ) worked on Indian ants particularly 
from Southern India and recorded 46 species under 
8 genera from this region; of these, 39 species 
were new to science. Later on, Rothneyi (1889), 
Forel (1900), Donisthorpe (1942, 1943) contributed 
much to the ant fauna of Southern India. Prior to 
this, Bingham (1903) published his valuable work 
on the Ant Fauna of British India, including Burma 
and Ceylon and gave detailed account of 
distribution of the species recorded. 

Sucessive workers like Forel (1900a, i900b, 
1 900c), Mukherjee ( 1 927), Karawajew ( 1 926, 1 927, 
1928), Wheeler (1927, 1928), Menozzi (1935), 
Donisthorpe (1942a, 1942b, 1942c, 1943), Smith 
(1948), Brown Jr. (1954, 1957, 1959a), Wilson 
(1964), Taylor (1965, 1966, 1968), Collingwood 
(1970), Bolton (1977), Baroni Urbani (1977a, 



1977b), Tiwari etal. (1977a, 1977b, 1977c, 1986a. 
1986b, 1994a, 1994b, 1996, 1997) and Imai etal. 
(1984) have made valuable contributions to the ant 
fauna of India, but no one has exclusively studied 
the ant fauna of Southern India. There have been 
some records of ants from various parts of Southern 
India in scattered form. This is the first attempt by 
the present author to consolidate the ant fauna of 
Southern India. 

The present work is based on a collection of 
ants from Tamil Nadu, a part of Kerala (coll. O.B. 
Chhotani.and R. N. Tiwari in Feb.-March, 1969), 
Andhra Pradesh (coll. J. N. Maligi in 1962 and N. 
M. Antony in 1969). Besides this the species 
recorded from Southern India, lying in National 
Zoological Collection of this department 
(Zoological Survey of India), have also been 
incorporated. The entire material studied under 
this project, have been deposited in the collection 
of Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. 

Altogether 2 1 9 species under 48 genera and 7 
subfamilies have been reported in this monograph. 
Out of these, 22 species are reported for the first 
time from Southern India and 2 species are new 
records from India. This includes descriptions of 
Worker and Female of 1 new species along with a 
new description of Female of 1 known species 
separately. The taxa marked with single asterisk 
(*) in "the list of Taxa in Systematic Account" are 
new records from the states of Southern India and 
those marked with double asterisks (**) are new 
records from India. 

Key to the subfamilies, genera and species, 
include only those species which were studied by 
the author. The species, recorded from literature, 
have been omitted in "Key to the species" because 
of insufficient description and non-availability of 
concerned papers. The separate Table showing the 
distributional pattern of recorded species zone- 
wise, along with distributional analysis of the 
same is also provided to have a glimpse of the 
distribution of the species at a glance. The mode 
of arrangement of the species is followed as in 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 



"Fauna of British India" — Bingham (1903). 
Illustrations given in the text are Fig. 1 after 
Ettershank (1966) and Figs. 2-6 after Bingham 
(1903). All measurements given in the text are in 
jLtm. 

Southern India or the Indian peninsula is 
bounded by Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian 
sea on the west, the Indian Ocean on the south and 
Satpura and Vindhya ranges in the north. The 
farthest point in the south is Kanyakumari, which 
lies at 8°04' N latitude and 77°36' E longitude. 
The peninsula has Western Ghats on the west, 
which rising steeply from the narrow costal plains, 
reach to greater heights of more than 1,200 m 
above mean sea level in certain parts and to more 
than 2,000 m in the south in Nilgiris, the Anaimalai 
and Cardamon Hills, the highest peak being at an 
altitude of 2,695 m above mean sea level in the 
Anaimalai Hills. The general slope of the land is 
towards the east, and such as, the Eastern Ghats 
are much lower than the mountains on the western 
side. The Deccan plateau lies at the centre and is 
generally 300 m high, rising to more than 600 m 
in Southern Deccan. On the east are wide eastern 
coastal plains with the high Shevaroy, Javadi and 
Pachaimalai Hills. 

The western coastal plains have numerous short 
and rapid flowing streams, some forming lagoons, 
a characteristic feature of the Malabar coast. The 
easter plains below 16° N, have only one large 
river of importance, the Kaveri, and a few small 
ones, the Penner, the Palar and the Vagal. These 
are also fairly fast flowing as they flow towards 
the sloping plateau. All these rivers are seasonal 
and depend entirely on the monsoon rains. 

The peninsula has been a stable land-mass 
since the very ancient times, at least the pre- 
cambrian and consists of highly metamorphosed 
rocks like gneisses and schists of the Archaean- 
system. The deltas in Tamil Nadu and Kerala 
states are alluvial. The Deccan lavas, some rocks 
in Tamil Nadu and parts of Coromandel plains 
have regur soils, while the major portion of the 
peninsula has red soil found on the Archaean 
crystaline rocks. 



Southern India has a fairly hot climate. The 
hottest months are April-May, when the maximum 
temperature varies from 32°C-40°C in different 
parts. The coldest months are December-January, 
when the maximum temperature varies from 27°C- 
30°C. The Malabar coast has fairly uniform 
temperature during the year varying 28°C-32°C, 
in Deccan between 30°C-40°C and in the south- 
east between 29°C-37°C. 

Both south-east and south-west monsoons are 
active in Southern India. The south-west monsoon 
is more active, giving heavy rains in the Malabar 
coast and Western Ghats and little in Deccan and 
eastern coast. The north-east monsoon gives rain 
in the eastern coastal areas. The average annual 
rainfall is more than 2,500 mm in Malabar coast 
and Western Ghats, about 900 mm in Karnataka 
and south-east Tamil Nadu and about 600 mm in 
Deccan. 

Western Ghats being very wet, have tropical 
evergreen forests. On the eastern side of these 
Ghats are found dry deciduous hill forests and 
some sub-tropical evergreen forests in the Shevaroy 
Hills. 

MORPHOLOGY 

Morphologically ants are at once distinguished 
from other aculeate Hymenoptera by a remarkable 
modification of the one or two segments of the 
abdomen immediately following the median 
segment or propodeum. This modification of the 
anterior portion of the abdomen consists in the 
almost complete detachment of one or two 
segments from the rest of the abdomen to form a 
highly flexible pedicel composed of one or two 
nodes. In the majority of the genera of the family 
Formicidae, the attachment of the pedicel to the 
median segment in front and to the rest of the 
abdomen behind is extremely constricted and 
narrow, giving great freedom of movement to 
both thorax and abdomen properly. When the 
pedicel is formed of two segments, a similar 
constriction lies between the two. In certain low 
forms of primitive ants like Myopopone, 
Amblyopone, etc., the node of pedicel is attached 
by the whole of its posterior face to the succeeding 



TIWARI ; Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 



segment of the abdomen, showing an 
approximation to the stiffer and more ponderous 
form of abdomen possessed by fossorial wasps of 
the family Scoliidae. 

Ants like other social Hymenopterans, such as 
Honey-bees and wasps, exhibit the maximum 
degree of social pattern and thus are differentiated 
into following forms ; 

1 . The female or perfect fertile female — 9 

2. The male ^ cf 

3. The worker or so called Neuter — $ 

The workers are undeveloped female and are 
invariably wingless and generally have the thorax 
more or less modified and different from the 
thorax of male or female. On shape and size, they 
are further differentiated into : 

(a) Worker minor — ^ min. 

(b) Worker major — $ maj. 

Further some of the workers are especially 
modified in their morphology for the purpose of 
fighting and protecting the colony from external 
invasion. For this purpose, their mandibles are 
strong and stout and have got bigger head. They 
are called Soldiers (a|). They are further 
differentiated according to the size as follows : 

(a) Soldiers minor — 2| min. 

(b) Soldiers major — 2| maj. 

The parts of the head, thorax and abdomen in 
an ant are homologous with those in other 
Hymenopterous insects, but are generally modified. 
The given figures (Figs. 1-4), illustrations of some 
of the various parts assumed by these, with details 
of the parts of which they are composed. The 
lettering in all the figures is alike and refers to the 
same parts (Bingham, 1903). 

TERMINOLOGY 

Mouth parts 

Mandible : The various parts of mandible are 
shown in Fig. lb. The most distal tooth is termed 
the apical, and the rests are sub-apical teeth; 
dental formulae are coded in the form "1 + 3", 
indicating one apical and three sub-apical. 

The basal shaft of the mandible bears several 
characters of classificatory importance. The 



mandalus is a small, unpigmented, apparently 
membranous lacuna which may contain the orifice 
of the duct from the mandibular gland. In shape, 
the mandalus may be linear, key-hole shaped or 
even triangular (Fig. lb). 

TruUeum : Distal to the mandalus is a large, more 
or less basin shaped depression called TruUeum, 
bounded laterally and distally by the blade of the 
mandible and medially by Canthallus (Fig. lb). 

Canthallus : It is a raised ridge running distal 
from the base of the mandible (Fig. lb). 

Labrum : The labrum (Fig. 2F) is movably 
articulated below the median area of the clypeus 
and folds up under the closed mandibles, forming 
with the exposed plates of the labio-maxillary 
complex, a tight seal over more delicate mouth 
parts and buccal opening. 

Maxillary and labial palpi : The palpal formula 
is a valuable character in identification. The old 
palpal formula is out dated and not in practice 
(Fig. 2E-F). 

A variable amount of fusion between segments 
which can not be seen in dried material is clear in 
immersed preparation (Kusnezov, 1954a, 1954b). 
As this fusion is important for phylogenetic 
reasoning the palpal formula is coded in a way, 
that indicates three degree of fusion, 
i. Separate segment or s 

ii. Partial fusion or p 

iii. Complete fusion or c 

"4, 3" represents four freely articulated maxillary 
segments and three freely articulated labial 
segments. 

Body Parts 

Thorax : The thorax of ants varies enormously in 
shape and development of the component parts. 
The thorax of a worker (^) differs markedly from 
the thorax of female (9) or male (C?) of the same 
species. 

The thorax of ants of different subfamilies, 
vary greatly in the structures and as such no 
typical diagram of an ant serves the purpose. 
However, in order to give different body stractures, 
Solenopsis sp. has been selected as a typical form 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 



and the terms related to identification iiave been 
elaborately illustrated in Figure Id. 

Wing : To the mesothorax at the sides above are 
attached in the female (9) and male (cf), the fore- 
wing, and to the sides of the metathorax, the hind- 
wings, the nerve venations of the wings are less 
complete than in most of the Aculeata. ' 

In the fore-wing the radial, coastal, medial and 
two sub-medial cells are always complete; others 
are variable and may or may not be present, 
complete or incomplete (Figs. Ic, 3A, B, D). 

Legs : Three pairs of legs are present in all sexes 
containing the following parts : 

Coxae, trochanter, single jointed femora, tibiae, 
tibial calcaria, which may or may not be present 
on all the legs, are often double, and may be 
pectinate or simple; tarsi 5 joints, the apical joint 
armed with two claws, which may be pectinate, 
dentate or simple (Figs. 3E-G). 

Abdomen : The abdomen in worker (?) and 
female (9) is composed of 6 segments, in the male 
(cf) of 7 visible segments and is like the rest of the 
parts in ants, very variable, generally more massive 
and comparatively longer in the female; smallar 
and more slender in the male than in the female 
(Figs. 4A-E). 

Other Terms 

(Figs, la-d) 

Inferior propodeal plates : These are pair of 
flanges or plate like structures placed vertically on 
either side of the foramen of petiole. (Synonymous 
terms are "lamellae", "rounded lamella", 
"metapleural lobes" and "meta-sternal lobes"- 
keml). 

Levator foramen : It is a partially separated 
channel in the roof of the propodeal foramen, into 
which fits a ligament that elavates the petiole. 

Median meta-sternal process : It is heavily 
sclerotised and consists of longitudinal grooved 
extension of the metasternum and is meant to 
receive the sub-petiolar process of the petiole. 



Median meso-sternal process : It is ventral ly 
and posteriorly directed elaboration of the anterior 
margin of the mesonotum, its function is unknown. 

Sub-petiolar process : It is a structure originating 
from the ventral surface of the petiole. It consists 
of 2 ridges, 1 ) an anterior ventral transverse ridge, 
and 2) posterior ventral transverse ridge which is 
actually an elaboration of the posterior sternal 
margin of the post-petiolar segment. 

The post-petiole articulates by a ball and socket 
joint with the gaster (or abdomen) the "Ball" of 
the gaster generally being concealed within the 
"socket" of the post-petiole. 

SYSTEMATIC ACCOUNT 

Formicidae is one of the largest family of order 
Hymenoptera under the class Insecta and is widely 
distributed throughout the world, because of its 
cosmopoliton nature. 9538 species of ants under 
16 subfamilies, 59 tribes and 296 genera have 
been reported till date from the world (Holldobler 
and Wilson, 1990). The most speciose subfamilies 
are Myrmicinae (4377 species, 155 genera), 
Formicinae (2458 species, 49 genera), Ponerinae 
(1299 species, 42 genera), Dolichoderinae (554 
species, 22 genera), Pseudomyrmecinae (197 
species, 3 genera). Subfamily Myrmicinae 
represents 45.89% of the species and 52.34% of 
the genera of the world, whereas Formicinae 
represents 25.77% of the species and 16.55% of 
the genera. Similarly Ponerinae represents 13.62% 
of the species and 14.19% of the genera of the 
world (Bolton, 1995). 

From Oriental region (including Indo- 
Australian), altogether 227 genera of ants have 
been reported till date, of these 27 genera are 
endemic in nature. The number of species described 
from Oriental region is 2480 (the splited number 
being 771 from Oriental region and 1709 from 
Indo-Australian region). 

Prior to this, Bingham (1903) reported 498 
species under 79 genera from India, including 
Burma and Ceylon. Subsequently, Chapman and 
Capco (1951) recorded 2080 species, 441 
subspecies and 684 varieties of cnts spread over 
176 genera in their clieck list from Asian 
subcontinent. 



TIWARI : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 



clypeal carina 
lateral clypeal iroot+i-- 
clypeal tooth--' 
carinal seta 




mandalus 



frontal carina 



-lateral setae 



■'nthallus-^ 

bar.^l margin 



median seta ^ 

intercarinal setae 



1st procarinal setae 

masticatory margin* 




"-ginglymus 
^trulleum 



0'30mm 



cu-o 




metanotal groove 
I 

promesonotal suture 1 P=^°POdeal spiracle 



metapleural gland 

I inferior propodeal plate 




posterior subpetiolor process 



sub-petiolor process i 

anterior subpetiolor process 



Fig. 1. a- Head of a typical ant {Solenopsis sp., worker) showing various parts; b-Mandib!e of Solenopsissp., worlcer; 
c-Wing venation of fore and hind wings of Solenopsis sp., female; d-body parts of a typical ant (Solenopsis sp., worker). 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 





J ^ 







Fig. 2. A-Head of a Doryiinae, worker; B-Head of Ponerinae, female; C-Head of a Ponerinae, male; D-Head of a 

Camponotinae, worker; E-Mouth parts (Maxilla) of Camponotinae; F-Mouth parts (Labium) of Camponotinae. a, vertex; b, 

ocelli; c, sides of head; d, frontal area; e, antennal carinae; f, clypeus; g, mandible; h, scape; j, flagellum; k, compound 

eyes; 1, stipes; m, galea; n, palpus (palpi); o, ligula. 



TIWARI : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 




Fig. 3. A-Thorax and wings of Ponerinae, worker; B-Thorax and wings of Myrmicinae, female; C-Thorax of Ponennae, 
male- D-Thorax and wings of Camponotinae, female; E-Thorax and legs of Ponerinae, worker; F-Thorax and legs of 

Dolich'oderinae, worker; G-Thorax and legs of Dorylinae, worker, a, pro-thorax; b, meso-thorax; c, scutellum; d, median 
segment; 1, pro-pleurae; m, meso-pleurae; p, meta-pleurae; f, trochanters; g, femora; h, tibiae; i, tibial calcana; k, tarsi. 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 







Dm 



Dii 




DlY 



Fig. 4. A - Abdomen of Dorylinae, worker; B-Abdomen of Ponerinae, worker; C-Abdomen of Dolichoderinae, worker; 
D (i) & (ii)-Abdomen of Myrmicinae, female; (iii)-AbdOmen of Ponerinae, male; (iv)-Abdomen of componotinae, female; 

E-Abdomen of Camponotinae, worker. 



TIWARl : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 






b 




Fig. 5. a-A representative of subfamily Doryiinac (Dorylus sp„ worker); b-Head of Dorylus sp., worker; c-Winged form 

of Donius sp., male; d-Head of winged form of Dorytus sp., male; e-A representative of subfamily Cerapachyinae 
{Llaponem sp., worker); f-A representative of subfamily Ponerinae {Leptogenys sp., worker); g-Head of Leptogenys sp., 

worker. 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 





Fig. 6. a-A representative of subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae {Tetraponera sp., worker); b-Head of Tetraponera sp., worker; 

c-A representative of subfamily Myrmicinae (Myrmicaria sp., worker); d-Thorax and petiole of Myrmicaria sp., worker; 

e-A representative of subfamily Formicinae {Oecophylla sp., worker); f-Head of Oecophylla sp., worker; 

g-A representative of subfamily Dolichoderinae (Dolichoderus sp., worker); h-Head of Dolichoderus sp., worker. 



TIWARI : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 

LIST OF TAXA INCORPORATED IN 
SYSTEMATIC ACCOUNT 

Family FORMtClDAE 

1. Subfamily DORYLINAE Forel 
1. Genus Dorylus Fabricius,- 1793 
Subgenus Alaopone Emery, 1881 

*1. Don'lus {Alaopone) oHenialis WestWOOod, 1835 

2. Genus Aenictus Shuckard, 1 840 

2. Aenictus aratus VoreX, \')QQ 

3. Aenictus brevicornis (Mayr, 1878) 

4. Aenictus f^rgUsoni Pdrel 1900 

5. Aenictus pachycerus (Smith, 1S58) 

6. Aenictus ceylonicus (Mayr, 1866) 

7. Aenictus arya Forel, 1900 

8. Aenictus clavatus Forel, 1900 

9. Aenictus clavatus vat kmafmsis Pofei, 1900 

10. Aenictus wwlightoni ¥ott\i 1890 

1 1 . Aenictus gleadowi Forel, 1 900 

II. Subfamily PONERINAE Lepeletiere 
3. Genus Anochetus Mayr, 1861 

*12. Anochetus sedillotiEmety, 1884 

1 3 . Anoehetus mordctx Donisthorpe, 1 942 

14. Anoehatus oHeimlis kanariensis Forel, 1900 

15. Anochetus punctiventris Mayr, 1878 

16. Anochetus punctiventris taylori Forel, 1900 

17. Anochetus ruginotis Stitz, 1929 

18. Anochetus nifus (Jerdon, 1851) 

4. Genus Odontomachus Latreille, 1804 

19. Odontomachus haematodes (Linnaeus, 1758) 
5. Genus Harpegnathus Jerdon, 1851 

20. Harpegnathus saltator Jerdon, 1851 

21. Harpegnathus venator (Smith, 1858) 



6. Genus Leptogenys Roger, 1861 
Subgenus Lobopelta Mayr, 1 862 
*22. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) birmana Forel, 1900 

23. Uptogenys (Lobopelta) ocellifera (Roger, 1861) 

24, Leptogenys (Lobopelta) dmtilobis Forel, 1900 
*25. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) diminuta (Smith, 1857) 

26. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) diminuta palliseri Forel, 1 900 

27. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) carinata Donisthorpe, 1943 

28. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) roberti coonoorensis Forel, 
1900 

29. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) longiscapus Donisthorpe, 1 943 

30. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) dalyi Forel, 1900 

7, Genus Diacamma Mayr, 1862 

31. Diacamma vagans (Smith, 1860) 

32. Diacamma rugosum ceylonensis Emery, 1897 

33. Diacamma rugosum \ar.jerdoni Forel, 1903 

34. Diacamma rugosum var. sculptum (Jerdon, 1 85 1 ) 

35. Diacamma cyaniventre Andre, 1887 

8. Genus Ectomomyrmex Mayr, 1867 

36. Ectomomyrmex annamitus (Andre, 1 892) 

37. Ectomomyrmex leeuwenhoeki (Forel, 1886) 

9. Genus Bothroponem Mayr, 1862 

38. Bothroponera henryi Donisthorpe, 1942 
*39. Bothroponera rubiginosa (Emery, 1 889) 
*40. Bothroponera sulcata (Frauenfeld, 1 867) 

41. Bothroponera tesserinoda (Mayr, 1877) 

42. Bothroponera rufipes (Jerdon, 1851) 

10. Genus Ponera Latreille, 1804 
*43. Ponera rrMncflfa Smith, 1860 

44. Ponera confinis Roger, 1 860 

45. Ponera stenocheilos }erdor\, 1851 

46. Ponera sulcato-fossulata Forel, 1 900 

47. Ponera ajffiMW Jerdon, 1 85 1 



11. Genus Euponera Forel, 1861 
Subgenus Trachymesopus Emery, 1911 

48. Euponera (Trachymesopus) darwini (FoTe.\, 1893) 

12. Genus Cryptopone Emery, 1893 

49. Cryptopone testacea (Motschulsky, 1 863) 

50. Cryptopone rufotestaceus Donisthorpe, 1943 

13. Genus Brachyponera Emery, 1901 

51. Brachyponera jerdoni (Forel, 1900) 

52. Brachyponera luteipes (Mayr, 1 862) 

53. Brachyponera luteipes var. continentalis Karawajew, 
1925 

14. Genus Mesoponera Emery, 1901 

54. Mesoponera melanaria Emery, 1 893 

15. Genus Platythyrea Roger, 1863 

55. Platythyrea sagei Forel, 1900 

56. Platythyrea wroughtoni Forel, 1 900 

57. Platythyrea wroughtoni var. victoriae Forel, 1900 

16. Genus Amblyopone Erichson, 1842 

58. Amblyopone belli Ford, 1900 

III. Subfamily CERAPACHYINAE Forel 
17. Genus Lioponera Mayr, 1878 

59. Lioponera longitarsus Mayr, 1878 

60. Lioponera parva Forel, \900 

IV. Subfamily PSEUDOMYRMECINAE Emery 
18. Genus Tetraponera Smith, 1852 
Subgenus Tetraponera Emery, 1900 

61. Tetraponera {Tetraponera) aitkeni (Forel, 1902) 
*62. Tetraponera (Tetraponera) allaborans Walker, 1 859 

63. Tetraponera (Tetraponera) rufonlgra (Jerdon, 185!) 

64. Tetraponera (Tetraponera) nigra (Jerdon, 1851) 

65. Tetraponera (Tetraponera) nigra fergusoni (Forel, 
1902) 

66. Tetraponera (Tetraponera) dijficills longiceps (Forel, 
1902) 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 
67. Tetraponera (Tetraponera) rufipes (Jerdon, 1851) 

V. Subfamily MYRMICINAE Lepeletier 
19. Genus Aphaenogaster Mayr, 1853 
*68. Aphaenogaster rothneyi Forel, 1902 

69. Aphaenogaster beccarii (Emery, 1 887) 

20. Genus Messor Forel, 1 890 

70. Messor barbarus (Linnaeus, 1 767) 

21. Genus Pheidole Westwood, 1841 
Subgenus Pheidole s. str. 

*71. Pheidole (Pheidole) malinsi Forel, 1902 

72. Pheidole (Pheidole) phlpsoni Forel, 1902 

73. Pheidole (Pheidole) spathifera Forel, 1902 

74. Pheidole (Pheidole) sharpi Forel, 1902 

75. Pheidole (Pheidole) hoogwerfi Forel, 1902 

76. Pheidole (Pheidole) constanciae Forel, 1902 

77. Pheidole (Pheidole) fergusoni Forel, 1902 

78. Pheidole (Pheidole) mus Forel, 1902 

79. Pheidole (Pheidole) minor (Jerdon, 1851) 

80. Pheidole (Pheidole) roberti Forel, 1902 

8 1 . Pheidole (Pheidole) providens (Sykes, 1 835) 

82. Pheidole (Pheidole) malabarica (Jerdon, 1851) 

83. Pheidole (Pheidole) diffusa (Jerdon, 1851) 

22. Genus Myrmica Latreille, 1804 

84. Myrmica caeca Jerdon, 1 85 1 

23. Genus Myrmicaria Saunders, 1841 

85. Myrmicaria brunnea Saunders, 1841 

24. Genus Crematogaster Lund, 1831 

*86. Crematogaster wroughtoni Forel, 1 902 



87 

88 

89 

*90 



Crematogaster dohrni Mayr, 1878 
Crematogaster rogenhoferi Mayr, 1 878 
Crematogaster flava Forel, 1886 
Crematogaster rothneyi Mayr, 1878 



TIWARI : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 



13 



*91. Crematogaster siibnuda Mayr, 1878 

92. Crematogaster ransonneti Mayr, 1 868 

93. Crematogaster diffusa (Jerdon, 1851) 

94. Crematogaster rufa (Jerdon, 1851) 

95. Crematogaster hnmnea var. nilgirica Forel, 1902 

96. Crematogaster brunnea contemta var. notabilis Forel, 
1902 

97. Crematogaster aberraiis Fok\, 1892 

98. Crematogaster aberrans var. inglebyi Forel, 1902 

99. Crematogaster ebeniiM ¥ok\, 1902 

100. Crematogaster Iravancorensis ¥ore\, 1902 

101. Crematogaster daiyi Forel, 1 902 

102. Crematogaster biroi Mayr, 1897 

103. Crematogaster biroi var. afrten; Forel, 1902 

104. Crematogaster pradipi sp. nov. 

25. Genus Strumigenys Smith, 1860 

105. Strumigenys godejfroyi Ma.yr, 1866 

26. Genus Myrmecina Curtis, 1829 

106. Myrmecina urbanii Tiwari, 1994 

107. /WvnNecmcf v;V/vae Tiwari, 1994 

27. Genus Monomorium Mayr, 1855 
108. Monomorium indicum ¥ore,[, 1902 
**109. Monomorium glyciphilimi (Smith, 1858) 
*1 10. Monomorium mayri Forel, 1902 

111. Monomorium floricola (Jerdon, 1851) 
*1 12. Monomorium latinode Mayr. 1872 

113. Monomorium dichroum Forel, 1902 

114. Monomorium pharaonis {\Jmr\a&u?„ 1758) 

1 15. Moiwmorium wroughtoiii Forel, 1902 

116. Monomorium criniceps {Mayr, 1878) 

117. Monomoriiun scabriceps (Mayr, 1878) 

1 18. Monotnorium crinicipiloscabriceps (Forel, 1902) 
119. Monomorium nigrum iFoK\, 1902) 



120. Monomorium glabrum {hndre., 1883) 

121. Monomorium glabrocriniceps (Forel, 1 902) 

1 22. Monomorium destructor (Jerdon, 1 85 1 ) 

123. Monomorium schurri Forel, 1902 

124. Monomorium minutum Mayr, 1855 

28. Genus Oligomyrmex Mayr, 1867 

125. Oligomyrmex leei Ford, 1902 

126. Oligomyrmex lamellifrons (Forel, 1902) 

29. Genus Solenopsis Westwood, 1841 

127. Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius, 1804) 

30. Genus Lophomyrmex Emery, 1892 

128. Lophomyrmex quadrispinosus (icrdon, 1851) 

3 1 . Genus Pheidologeton Mayr, 1 862 

1 29. Pheidologeton affinis (Jerdon, 1851) 

130. Pheidologeton diversus (Jerdon, 1851) 

32. Genus Meranoplus Smith, 1 854 
* 1 3 1 . Meranoplus bicolor (Guerin, 1838) 

132. Meranoplus belli Fore\, 1902 

133. Meranoplus carinatus Don\sthorpe, 1942 

134. Meranoplus flaviventris Donisthorps, 1943 

135. Meranoplus levis Donislhorpe, 1942 

136. Meranoplus rothneyi Fore\, 1902 

33. Genus Triglyphothrix Forel, 1890 

137. Triglyphothrix decamera Forsl, 1902 

138. Triglyphothrix musculus Forel, 1902 

1 39. Triglyphothrix obesa (Andre, 1 887) 

34. Genus Tetramorium Mayr, 1 855 
140. Tetramorium guineense {FabrlciuR, 1793) 
**141. Tetramorium pilosus yerburyi Forel, 1902 

142. Tetramorium fergusoni Forel, 1902 

143. Tetramorium inglebyi Forel, 1902 

144. Tetramorium coonoorense Forel, 1902 



a-6/r5l/Cal./98 



14 

145. Terraniorium niLxtum Fore], 1902 

146. Tetramorium wroughtoni (?orc\, 1902) 

147. Tetramorium rothneyi {Fore], 1902) 

148. Tefrainoriwn smithi Mayr, 1879 

1 49. Tetramorium tortuosum var. belli Forel, 1 902 

150. Tetramorium helgaense Forel, 1902 

35. Genus Cataulacus Smith, 1853 

151. Cataulacus (Cataulacus) latus Forel, 1891 

36. Genus Atta Fabricius, 1 804 

152. Atta domicola ierdon, 1851 

153. Atta clissiinilis icrdon, 1851 

VI. Subfamily FORMICINAE Lepeletier 
37. Genus Oecophylla Smith, 1861 

154. Oecophylla smaragdina (Fahr'icms, 1775) 

38. Genus Myrmecocystus Wesmael, 1838 

155. Myrmecocystus setipes Forel 1894 

39. Gtnm Acantholepis Mayr, 1861 

*156. Acantholepis frauenfeldi (Mayr, 1855) 

157. Acantholepis opaca Fore\, 1892 

158. Acantholepis fergusoni Fore\, 1895 

40. Genus Camponotus Mayr, 1861 

1 59. Camponotus angusticollis (Jerclon, 1851) 

160. Camponotus compressus (Fabricius, 1787) 

161. Camponotus sericeus (Fabricius. 1 798) 

1 62. Camponotus rufoglaucus (Jerdon, 1 85 1 ) 
*I63. Camponotus dolendus ForeX, 1892 

164. Camponotus paria Emery, 1889 

165. Camponotus mendax Fore], 1895 

1 66. Camponotus puniceps Donisthorpe, 1 942 

167. Catnponotus barbatus Roger, 1863 

168. Camponotus taylori Fore\, \9,92 

169. Ccmiponotus similis Dor\\i\horpe, 1943 

170. Camponotus variegatus (Smith, 1858) 



171 
172 
173 
174, 
175, 
176, 
177. 
178, 
179. 
180. 
181. 

182. 
*183. 
*184. 

185. 

186. 

187. 



190. 

191. 

192. 

193. 

194. 

195. 

196. 

197. 

198. 

199. 
200. 
201. 
202. 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 

Camponotus variegatus somifica Forel, 1902 
Camponotus mitis (Smith, 1858) 
Camponotus thraso Forel, 1 893 
Camponotus phragmaticola Doni.sthorpe, 1943 
Campomius s'tric'tus (Jerdoh, 1 85 1 ) 
Camponotus confutii Forel, 1894 
, CaiHponotus varius Dor{K\horpe, 1943 
, Camponotus nirvcmae ForeX, 1893 
. Camponotus timidus (Jerdon, 1851) 
Camponotus velox (]erdor\, 1851) 
Camponotus radiatus Forel, 1 892 
41. Genus Polyrhachis Smith, 1858 
Polyrhachis mayri Roger, 1863 
Polyrhachis dives Smith, 1857 
Polyrhachis simplex Mayr, 1 862 
Polyrhachis clypeata Mayr, 1 862 
Polyrhachis clypeata var. obtusisqucuna Forel, 1902 
Polyrhachis exercita Walker, 1 859 
Polyrhachis rastellata Latreiile, 1802 
Polyrhachis rastellata var. corporaali Santschi, 1928 
Polyrhachis duodentata Donisthorpe, 1942 
Polyrhachis illaudata Walker, 1 859 
Polyrhachis latispinosa Donisthorpe, 1 942 
Polyrhachis punctillata Roger, 1 863 
Polyrhachis punctillaia fergusoni Forel, 1902 
Polyrhachis dives belli Forel, 1912 
Polyrhachis binghami Forel, 1 893 
Polyrhachis furcata gracilior Forel, 1 893 
Polyrhachis indificans (Jerdon, 1851) 
Polyrhachis sylvicola (Jerdon, 1851) 
Polyrhachis tibialis Smith, 1858 
Polyrhachis tibialis var. parsis Emery, 1901 
Polyrhachis weberi Donisthorpe, 1943 



TIWARl : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 

203. Folyrhachis wmuf^litoni Forcl, 1894 

204. Polyrhachis thrinax Roger, 1 863 

205. Polvrhaclus indka Mayr, 1870 

42. Genus Hemioptica Roger, 1862 

206. Hemioptica scissa Roger, 1 862 

207. Hemioptica aculeaia (Mayr, 1878) 

43. Genus Paratrechina Motschoulsky, 1863 
*208. Paratrechina bourbonica (¥ok\, 1886) 
-209. Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille, 1802) 

210. Paratrechina assimilis (Jerdon, 1851) 

211. Paratrechina yerburyi (Fore!, 1 894) 

44. Genus Plagiolepis Mayr, 1861 

212. Plagiolepis jerdoni Forel, 1 894 

213. Plagiolepis rogeri Ford, 1894 

214. Plagiolepis wrouglitoni Fore\, 1902 

45. Genus Anoplolepis Santschi, 1914 

215. Anoplolepis longipes (Jerdon, 1851) 

46. Genus Formica Linnaeus, 1758 

2 1 6. Formica phyllopliila Jerdon, 1 85 1 

217. Farmica vagcms iadon, 1851 

VII. Subfamily DOLICHODERINAE Forel 
47. Genus Tapinoma Forster, 1850 

218. Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius, 1793) 
48. Genus Bothriomyrmex Emery, 1865 

219. Bothriomvrmex dalyi Forel, 1895 

Key to the Subfamilies of Formicidae 

1. Pedicel of the abdomen one-jointed 2 

— Pedicel of the abdomen two-jointed 4 

2. A more or less marked constriction between 
basal two segments of abdomen 

PONERINAE 



15 



— No constriction between basal two segments 
of abdomen ^ 

3. Opening at posterior end of gaster (acidopore) 
terminal, circular and usually surrounded by 
a fringe of hairs FORMICINAE 

— Opening at posterior end of gaster (acidopore) 
transverse, slit-like; eye never present, blind 

DORYLINAE 

4. Elongate, often very slender, eye very large 
and elongate; clypeus with a rounded upper 
margin, not prolonged upward between the 
frontal carinae; frontal carinae usually close 
together, usually narrow and not expanded 
laterally to cover the antennal insertations, 
antennae short ....PSEUDOMYRMECINAE 

Without this combination of characters; 

frontal carinae usually large, nearly always 
covering the antennal insertations and nearly 
always well-separated MYRMICINAE 

I. Subfamily DORYLINAE Forel 

Members of this subfamily are known as army 
ants and are sometimes referred to as legionary 
ants in the New World and Old World. They are 
predaceous and are known for their foraging 
expeditions, the size of which are sometimes 
exaggerated. Army ants exhibit a number of 
morphological and biological peculiarities not 
common to most ants, such as, wasp-like males, 
wingless termite-like females, blind workers, and 
their raiding and emigrating behaviour. Retten 
Meyer (1963) outlined the following traits in which 
they differ from other ants : 1) they feed almost 
exclusivelyon animal prey which is collected by 
large groups raiding workers; 2) their raiding 
columns usually connect to the nest by at least one 
continuous column; 3) the entire colony periodically 
and frequently emigrates to new nest's sites ; 4) 
emigration are largely dependant on the size, cast, 
age and range of ages of the brood (or broods); 
and 5) the colonies are founded by division of an 
entire colony into two (or possibly several daughter 
colonies. Other ants may possess some of these 
traits, but not all of them. 



16 



Much of the biological worlc on army ants has 
been done in Central America on the terrestrial 
species of Eciton which are found in large clusters 
above the ground and whose colonies may number 
upto million individuals. Most of the army ants, 
however, are sub-terranean in habit, though the 
raiding columns of some may appear above ground. 
Raiding may be in columns only several ants wide 
or in swarms of a fan-shaped pattern. Most of the 
prey is other arthropods, only occasionally 
vertebrates. All species have nomadic and statary 
activity cycles where the entire colony moves 
from one area to another, a unique behaviour 
exhibited by this group. 

Most of the taxonomy is based on males and 
workers, and for some species only one caste is 
known. 

Key to the Genera of Dorylinae 

1. Pedicel one-jointed; pro-mesOnotal suture 

distinct, meso-metanotal suture obsolete 

Dorylus 

— Pedicel two-jointed; pro-mesonotal suture 

obsolete, meso-metanotal suture distinct 

Aenictus 

C?Cf 

I. Of comparatively large size, length over 18 
mm.; node of pedicel convex Dorylus 

— Smaller body size, length under 13 mm.; 
node of pedicel concave, sometimes merely 
longitudinally grooved or bilobed never 
convex Aenictus 

1 . Genus Dorylus Fabricius 

1793. Dorylus Fabricius, Ent. Syst., 2 : 194. 

Type-species : D. helvolus cf (Linnaeus, 1758), from 
Africa. 

Subgenus Alaopone Emery 

1881. Alaopone Emery, Ann. Mas. Civ. Star. Nat. Genova, 
16 : 274, ^. 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 

* 1 . Dorylus (Alaopone) orientalis Westwood 

1 835. Dorylus orientalis Westwood, Proc. Tool. Soc. LoncL, 
3 : 72, c?. 

1840. Typhlopone curtisi Shuckard, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.. 5 
: 265, ?. 

1840. Dorylus longicornis Shuckard, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
5 : 321, Cf. 

1881. Alaopone obenlmeri Emery, Ann. Miis. Civ Star. 
Nat. Genova, 16 ; 274, ^. 

1903. Dorylus orientalis, Bingham, Fawia Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 4. Cf. ^ maj., § min. 

1994. Dorylus (Alaopone) orientalis, Tiwari et al., State 
Fauna Series 3 ; Fauira of West Bengal, Part 8 : 232. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Kerala : 
Kuttikanam near Peermade, Several exs., 3.iii.l969, 
ex. at light, coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari; 
Enur back water, 5 workers. 18.1.1915, coll. N. 
Annandale. 

Distribution : INDIA ; Kerala, Orissa, 
Maharashtra, West Bengal. Elsewhere : Burma, 
China, Malayan Peninsula, Indonesia (Java. 
Sumatra, Borneo), Nepal, Sri Lanka. 

Biological notes : This species is commonly known 
as root-eatiiig ant, the workers feed on soft parts 
of roots and the tuberous roots are hollowed out. 

Green (1903) also agreed with above vegetation 
behaviour of the said species. But Mukherjee (1933) 
doubted this. He studied the worker's mouth parts 
in details and found them "better adapted for 
feeding on animal food than on plants. The 
mandible is similar to that of the species Dorylus 
(Typhlopone) labiatus Shuck., 1840, which is 
carnivorous in habit. The sharp-pointed bristles, 
spines and setae on the I st and 2nd maxillae, can 
well pierce the skin of the victim and draw out the 
nutritive fluid from the body of their prey, which 
they suck by their a mobile tongue." 

The male resembles wasps and females are 
wingless and blind. In Southern India only one 
male was collected at light no workers came 
across, evidently it is presumed that it is not very 
common species in Southern India. 



TIWARI ; Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 



2. Genus Aenictiis Shuckard 

1840. Aenictiis Shuck., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 5 ; 266, C?. 
Type-species : A. amhiguus Shucl<ard, 1840, from India. 

2. Aenictus aratus Forel 

1900. Aenictus aratus Forel. Ann. Sac. Ent. Belg., 44 : 74. 

1900. Aenictus uitliemi Forel, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 13 

; 465 & 473, §. 
1964. Aenictus aratus, Wilson, Pacific Insects, 6 (3) : 446 

(Syns.). 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA ; Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil 
Nadu, Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh. Elsewhere 
: Queensland, Australia. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for the study. However, Bingham 
(1903 : 19) reported the species, A. aitkeni Forel, 
1900 from Poona, Kanara and Travancore. 

3. Aenictus brevicornis (Mayr) 

1 878. lyplilatta brevicornis Mayr, Verh. zool.-hot. Ges. Wien. 

28 ; 668 & 669, ^. 
1 900. Aenictus brevicornis Forel, J. Boinlxiy Nat. Hist. Soc, 

13 : 466, ^. 

1 994. Aenictus ivevicornis, Tiwari et ai. State Fauna Series 
3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 233. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala, Karnataka, Uttar 
Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal. 

Remarks : Material of this species could not be 
available for the study. However, Bingham (1903 
: 21) reported this species from Calcutta, Bangalore, 
Calicut, Assam and N. W. Provinces of India. 

4. Aenictus fergusoni Forel 

1900. .Aenictus fergusoni Forel, ./. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 

13 : 465 & 473, §. 
1964. Aenictus fergusoni, Wilson, Pacific Insects, 6 : 462 

(Syns). 

Material examined : Nil. 



Distribution : INDIA : Kerala, Gujarat, Sikkim, 
Assam, Great Nicobar. Elsewhere : Burma, 
Indonesia (Java). 

Remarks : Bingham (1903 : 18) reported this 
species from Travancore, Sural, Sikkim. But Wilson 
(1964) reported varities of this species, var. piltze 
from Nedungadu, Tanjore, Tamil Nadu and var. 
montamis from Darjeeling, West Bengal and 
Missamari, Assam. 

5. Aenictus pachy cents (Smith) 

1858. Eciton pachycerus Smith. Cat. Hymn. Brit. Mus., 6 : 
153,?. 

1878. Typhlatta bengalensis Mayr, Verli. zool.-bot. Ges. 
Wien, 28 :• 668, ?. 

1964. Aenictus pachycerus, Wilson, Pacific Insects. 8 ; 471 
(Syns.). 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil 
Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Himachal 
Pradesh. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903 : 20) reported this species and mentioned its 
localities as Dehra Dun, Travancore, Madras, 
Kanara and probably throughout continental India. 
But Wilson (1964) reported the syntypes of 
bengalensis from Solan near Simla which are very 
similar to the syntypes of pachycerus. 

6. Aenictus ceylonicus (Mayr) 

1866. Typlilatta ceylonicus Mayr, Sitzungsb. Akad. Wiss. 
Wien, 53 : 505, ?. 

1903. Aenictus ceylonicus, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 22, §. 

1964. Aenictus ceylonicus, Wilson, Pacific Insects, 6 : 452. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka, Maharashtra. 
Elsewhere : Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Indonesia (Borneo), 
Philippine Is., New Guinea, Am, Australia as far 
South as Northern South Wales. 



Remarks : No specimen of this species were 
available for the study. However, Wilson (1964) 
reported this species from Kanara and Poona. 

7. Aenictus arya Forel 

1900. Aenictus arya Forel, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 13 : 
468 & 472, a. 

1964. Aenictus arya, Wilson, Pacific Insects, 6 : 481. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka. 

Remarlcs : Specimen of this Species could not be 
available for the study. But Bingham (1903 : 8) 
and Wilson (1964), both of them, reported this 
species from Kanara. 

8. Aenictus clavatus Forel 

1900. Aenictus clavatus Forel, / Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 13 
: 467, 471. 

1964. Aenictus clavatus, Wilson, Pacific Insects, 6 : 482. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka, Maharashtra, 
Gujarat, Sikkim. 

Remarlis : Specimen of this species could not be 
available for the study. However, Bingham (1903 
: 12) reported this species and mentioned its 
localities as "Western India, Gujarat, Kanara and 
Sikkim". Wilson (1964) also reported this species 
from Kanara and Poona. 

9. Aenictus clavatus var. kanarensis Forel 

1900. Aenictus clavatus var. kanarensis Forel, J. Bombay 
Nat. Hist. Soc. 13 : 467, 5. 

1964. Aenictus clavatus var. kanarensis, Wilson, Pacific 
Insects, 6 : 482. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for the study. However, Wilson (1964) 
reported this species from Kanara. 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 

10. Aenictus wroughtoni Forel 
1890. Aenictus wroughtoni Forel, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 34 : 

104, y, Cf. 

1903. Aenictus wroughtoni, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 16, C?, 5- 

1964. Aenictus wroughtoni, Wilson, Pacific Insects, 6 : 480. 

»- 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala, Maharashtra, 
Madhya Pradesh. f 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for the study. However, Bingham 
(1903) reported this species and mentioned its 
localities as "Western and Central India and 
Travancore". 

1 1 . Aenictus gleadowi Forel 

1900. Aenictus gleadowi Forel, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 
. 13 : 468 & 469, d". 

1903. Aenictus gleadowi, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 8, C?. 

1964. Aenictus gleadowi, Wilson, Pacific Insects, 6 : 482. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka. 

Remarks : No specimen of this species were 
available for study. However, Bingham (1903) 
reported this species from Kanara. Subsequently, 
Wilson (1964) also reported this species from the 
same area. 

II. Subfamily PONERINAE Lepeletier 

The species of this subfamily are primarily 
characterised by a constriction, sometimes slight 
but generally distinct, and often remarkably deep, 
between the basal two segments, and by the ■* 
unmodified powerful and generally exerted sting. 
The body more or less elongate and cylindrical, 
the abdomen especially so; the mandibles powerful; 
the antennae more or less ma"^sive; eyes generally 
present, absent in one or ivvn genera; legs 
moderately long. Habits predaceous and 
carnivorous. The Ponerine ants carry their prey or 



TIWARl : Taxonomic Studies on Anls of Southern India 

food underneath the body between the fore legs, a 
method of carrying food, quite different from that 
adopted by the Caniponolinue and Myrmicinae. 
The males and females of Ponerinae, so far as they 
are known, are always winged. This subfamily 
mostly represents the primitive group of ants and 
thus can be treated as the ancestral stock in the 
phylogeny of ants, The nests, in small colonies of 
a few hundred individuals or less, mostly on soil 
or rotten wood. They are abundantly distributed 
all over the tropical regions of the world, but are 
even repotted from sotne European and American 
countries and the cause of this migration is the 
introduction of commerce from one part of the 
world to the other. 

Key to the Genera of Ponerinae 

1 . Pedicel not free; a strong constriction, but no 
flexible joint between pedicel and abdomen 
Amhlyopone 

— Pedicel free, with a flexible joint between it 
and the abdomen 2 

2. Mandibles articulated close together i" middle 
of front margin of head 3 

— Mandibles articulated wide apart at lateral 
angles of front margin of head 4 

3. Antennal hollows not confluent posteriorly 
Odontomachiis 

— Antennal hollows not confluent posteriorly 

Anochetiis 

4. Mandibles long, curved upwards, one strong 
tooth at base of masticatory margin, thence 
denticulate to apex Harpegnathus 

— Mandibles differently formed 5 

5. Claws pectinate Leptogenys 

— Claws not pectinate 6 

6. Posterior margin of clypeus not distinctly 
defined Platythyrea 

— Posterior margin of clypeus defined by a 
suture 7 



19 



7. Node of pedicel bispinous posteriorly 

Diacainma 

— Node of pedicel not bispinous, sometimes 
denticulate posteriorly 8 

8. Epi sternum of mesothorax separated from 
sternum by a suture Ectomomyrinex 

— Episternum of mesothorax not separated from 
sternum -^ 

9. Posterior tibiae with only one spur 10 

— Posterior tibiae with two spurs 11 

10. Club of flagellum of antennae not well- 
defined Ponera 

— Club of flagellum of antennae disdnct and 
well-defined Ciyptoponc 

1 1 . Middle of front margin of clypeus produced, 
truncate at apex Euponera 

— Middle of front margin of clypeus not 
produced 12 

12. Me.so-metanotal suture obsolete 

Bothroponera 

— Meso-metanotal suture well-marked 13 

13. Masticatory margin of mandibles very long, 
longer than inner margin Mesoponem 

— Masticatory margin of mandibles shorter.... 
Brachyponera 

3. Genus Anochetus Mayr 

1861. Anochetus Mayr. Eiirop. Fonnicid. : 53, 5- 

Type-specie.s : Odontomaclius ghilliani Spinola. 1853 
from Europe. 

*12. Anochetus sedilloti Emery 

1 884. Anochetus sedilloti Emery, Ann. Miis. Civ. Stor. Nut. 
Cenova. 21 : 377 & 378. 5. 

1903. Anochetus sedilloti, Bingham. Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera. 2 : 42. $. 9. Cf. 

1911. Anochetus {Anochetus) sedilloti, Einery, Genera 
Insect.. 118 : 109. 

1951. Anochetus sedilloti. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 
Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants AsiaJ. 1:41. 



20 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 



Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Mudamthorai Tiger Sanctuary near 
Ambasamudrum, Several workers, l.iii. 1969, coll. 
O.B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu and Western 
India. Elsewhere : North Africa (Tunisia). 

Remarks : Bingham (1903) also reported this 
species and mentioned its locality as "Western 
India". 

13. Anochetus mordax Donisthorpe 

1 942. Anochetus mordax Donisthorpe, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
(11) 9 : 452, ^. 

1951. Anochetus mordax, Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 
Inst. Sci Tech.. Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 
40. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. However, Donisthorpe 
(1942), in his Columbo Museum Expedition of 
Southern India, reported this species from 
Dohnavur, Tinnelvelly dist.. South India. 

14. Anochetus orientalis kanariensis Forel 

1900. Anochetus kanariensis Forel, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. 
Soc, 13 : 59, 5. 

1903. Anochetus kanariensis, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 44, 5- 

1 95 1 . Anochetus orientalis kanariensis. Chapman and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia), 1 : 40. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kamataka, Tamil Nadu, 
and Western India. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for the study. However, Bingham 
(1903) reported this species from Western India, 
Kanara and Madras. Further, he (op. cit.) also 
quoted, "Dr. Forel regards this as a race of A. 
orientalis Andre from Cochin-China". 



\5. Anochetus punctiventris Mayr 

1878. Anochetus punctiventris Mayr, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. 
Wien, 28 : 659, $. 

1903. Anochetus punctiventris, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 41, 5, 9- 

1951. Anochetus punctiventris, Chapman and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia), 1 : 41. 

1994. Anochetus punctiventris, Tiwari et. al., State Fauna 
Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 236. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Southern and Western 
India, Sikkim, West Bengal. 

Remarks : No specimen of this species were 
available for the study. However, Bingham (1903) 
reported this species and mentioned its localities 
as "Bengal, Sikkim, Western and Southern India". 

1 6. Anochetus punctiventris taylori Forel 

1900. Anochetus taylori Forel, / Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 13 
: 60 & 63, 5. 

1903. Anochetus taylori, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 43, $. 

1 95 1 . Anochetus punctiventris taylori. Chapman and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia), 1 : 41. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil 
Nadu, Maharashtra. Elsewhere : Prinsen Is., 
Vertaten Is. 

Remarks : The material of this subspecies could 
not be available for the study. However, Bingham 
(1903) reported taylori as a species and mentioned 
its localities as "the Nilgiris, Belgaum, Western 
India and Poona". 

17. Anochetus ruginotis Stitz 

1929. Anochetus ruginotis Stitz, Gesel. Nat. Freunde 
Berlin : 114, $. 

1951. Anochetus ruginotis, Chaj)»^ar! ?nd Cappo, Monogr. 
Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 
41. 



TIWARI ; Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : South India. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for the study. However, Chapman and 
Capco (1951) reported this species from South 
India, no clear locality mentioned. 

18. Anochetus rufus (Jerdon) 
1851. Odontomachus rufus Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. ScL. 17 ; 

116, §. 
1951 . Anochetus rufus. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. 

Sci. Tech., ManUa (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 41. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu (Salem). 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for the smdy. However, Jerdon (1851) 
reported this species under the Genus 
Odontomachus from Salem dist. (ex. under stone). 
But subsequently. Chapman and Capco (1951) 
recorded this species under the Genus Anochetus 
and mentioned its locality as "South India". 

4. Genus Odontomachus Latreille 

1804. Odontomachus Latreille, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat.. 24 ; 
179. 
Type-species : Formica haematodes Linnaeus, 1758, from 
the tropics of both hemispheres. 

19. Odontomachus haematodes (Linnaeus) 
1758. Formica haematodes Linn., Syst. Nat., ed 10, 1 : 582, 

1900. Odontomachus haematodes, Forel, J. Bombay Nat. 

Hist. Soc. 13 ; 57, ?. 
1903. Odontomachus haematodes. Bingham, Fawm Brit. 

India. Hymenoptera. 2 : 47, ?^, 9. 

1951. Odontomachus haematoda. Chapman and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia), 1 : 43. 

Material examined : Nil. 



21 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kerala, 
Assam, Sikkim, Andaman and Nicobar Is- 
Elsewhere : Africa, America, Australia, Indonesia 
(Java, Borneo), New Guinea, Philippines, Sri 
Lanka. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for the smdy. However, Bingham 
(1903) reported this species and mentioned its 
distribution from different places of Southern India 
(Madras, Cochin, Travancore) and Sikkim, Assam, 
Ceylon etc. and also found in Africa and America. 

5. Genus Harpegnathus Jerdon 

1851. Harpegnathus Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci.. 17 : 11 6, $ . 
Type-species : H. saltator Jerdon, 1851, from Malabar, 
India. 

20. Harpegnathus saltator Jerdon 

1 85 1 . Harpegnathus saltator Jerdon, Madras ./. Lit. Sci. 17 

: 117,5. 
1858. Drepanognathus cruentatus Smith, Cat. Hym. Brit. 

Mus., 6 ; 82, ^. 
1 900. Harpegnathus saltator et cruentatus. Forel, J. Bombay 

Nat. Hist. Soc. 13 : 63 & 65, 5, 9, C? : 
1903. Drepanognathus saltator, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India. 

Hymenoptera. 2 : 50, ^, 9, C?- 
1 95 1 . Harpegnathus saltator. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 
Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 
66. 



Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kamataka, Kerala, Western 
India, Assam, Elsewhere : China ?, Sri Lanka. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) recorded this species under the Genus 
Drepanognathus and mentioned its localities as 
"Western India, Mysore, Kanara, Travancore, 
Ceylon and China ?". 



22 Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 

21. Harpegnathus venator (Smith) — Medift} joints of fiagellum of antennae not 
1858. Drepanognathus vmator Sm\ih, Cat. Hym. Brit. longer than broad hirmana 

*22. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) birmana Forel 
1900. Harpegnathus venator, Forel, J. Bombay Nat- Hist. 

Soc 13 ■ 63 & 64 3 9 d" \9(X). Lobopelta birmana Forel, / Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 

13 : 305 & 310. 
1 903. Drepanogiiathus venator, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India. 

Hymenoptera, 2 : 51, ?, $, cf. \9Q3. Lobopelta birmana, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 

inci ,, I ^, , ^ . Hymenoptera. 2 : 58, $, Cf. 

1 95 1 . Harpegnathus venator, Chapman and Capco, Moiiogr. 

Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 1951. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) birmana. Chapman and Capco, 

67. Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 

Asia), 1 : 32. 
Material examined : NiL 

1994. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) birmana, Tiwari et al. State 
Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu?, Assam, Fauna Series}: Fauna of West Bengal, Parts.- 242. 

Sikkim,Uttar Pradesh, Elsewhere: Burma, China. Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Remarks : No specimen of this species could be ^^'^^ ' Sanyasimalai Reserve Forest and Yercaud, 
available for this study. But Bingham (1903) 7 workers, 1 3.ii. 1969, ex. under stone, coll. O.B. 
reported this species under the Genus Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 
Drepanognathus and mentioned its distribution as Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, 
"Northern India (Dehra Dun), Sikkim, Assam, Assam. Elsewhere : Burma. 
Madras ? and Burma". 

23. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) ocellifera (Roger) 
6. Genus Leptogenys Roger 

1851. Ponera processionalis Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci., 

1861. Leptogenys Roger, Berl. ent. Zeitschr, 5 : 41, §. 17 : 118. 

Type-species : L. falcigera Roger, 1861, from Sri Lanka 186L Ponera ocellifera Roger, Berl. ent. Zeit., 5 : 13, 5. 

(formerly Ceylon) 

1887. Lobopelta distinguenda var. andrei Emery, Ann. Mus. 

Subgenus Lobopelta Mayr <^'^- ^'°''- ^«'- Genova, 25 : 431, $. 

1862. U,bopeltaM^yr,Verh.zool.-bot.Ges.Wien.n:13\ '^°^- ^'"'P^^'^ ocellifera, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
>< Hymenoptera, 2 : 57, ?, C?. 

1911. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) processionalis, Emery, Genera 
Key to the Species of Leptogenys {Lobopelta) insect., 118 : 104. 

1. Node of pedicel squamiform, compressed 1951. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) ocellifera. Chapman and 
longitudinally, its upper margin narrow, Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 

obtuse 2 Ants Asia), 1 : 38. 

— Node of pedicel not compressed longi- '994. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) ocellifera, Tmanetal., State 
tudinally, broader above, sub-cubital with Fauna Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Pans -.244. 
anterior and posterior margins Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 

diminuta Naju : Top-Slip, several workers, 18.ii.1969, ex. 

2. Clypeus tridentate anteriorly dentilobis ^^"^ ^ ^^^^ t'"^®' ^oH. O. B. Chhotani and R. N. 

Tiwari. 

— Clypeus not dentate 3 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kerala, West 

3. Medial joints of fiagellum of antennae Bengal, and nearly the whole of peninsular India, 
distinctly longer than broad ocellifera Elsewhere : Sri Lanka. 



TIWARI : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 

Remarks : Bingham (1903) reported this species 
under Lobopelta and mentioned its distribution as 
"Nearly the whole of peninsular India and Ceylon, 
not extending to Assam or Burma". A variety was 
also reported from Sarawak by Emery. 

Biological notes : This ant was collected going in 
files over a teak tree at Top-Slip, Tamil Nadu, 
along the earthem galleries of Odontotermes sp. 
(Isoptera). 

24. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) dentilobis Forel 

1900. Lobopelta dentilobis Forel, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 

13 ; 305 & 309, $. 
1903. Lobopelta dentilobis, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India. 

Hymenoptera, 2 : 58, §. 
1911. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) dentilobis. Emery, Genera 

Insect.. 118 : 103. 
1951. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) dentilobis. Chapman and 

Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 

Ants Asia), 1 : 33. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Top-Slip near Sirkarpadi Tunnel entry, 12 
workers, 18.ii.l969, ex. soil and under stone, coll. 
O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 
Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kerala, 
Kamataka, Maharashtra. 

Remarks : Bingham (1903) reported this species 
under Lobopelta and mentioned its localities as 
"Western India, Thana, Kanara, Travancore and 
the Nilgiris". 

*25. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) diminuta (Smith) 

1857. Ponera diminuta Smith, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. 2 : 69, ^. 
1 857. Ponera laeviceps Smith, / Proc. Linn. Soc. 2 ; 69, 5. 

1 900. Lobopelta diminuta, Forel, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 

13 : 307 & 312, ?, 9 ?, cf. 
1911. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) diminuta, Emery, Genera 

Insect., 118, : 103. 



23 



1951. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) diminuta. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 33. 

1994. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) diminuta, Tiwari et ai. State 
Fauna Series 3 ; Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 242. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 

Nadu : Top-Slip, Sirkarpadi Tunnel area, 16 

workers, 18.ii.l969, coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. 

N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, and mostly 
throughout India except Punjab and the dry desert 
areas of Central India. Elsewhere : Extending in 
the East through Malayan subregion to New 
Guinea. 

Remarks : Previously this species was also 
recorded under the Genus Lobopelta by Bingham 
(1903 : 61) and he in the same publication, 
mentioned its distribution as "Extends throughout 
our limits and into the Malayan subregion : not 
recorded from the Punjab or the dry desert portions 
of Central India". 

26. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) diminuta palliseri 

Forel 

1900. Lobopelta palliseri Forel, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 

13 ; 307 & 313, $. 
1 95 1 . Leptogenys (Lobopelta) diminuta palliseri. Chapman 

and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech.. Manila (Check 

List Ants Asia), 1 : 35. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka and Western 
India. Elsewhere : Burma, Indonesia (Sumatra), 
Taiwan (Formosa). 

Remarks : The material of this subspecies could 
not be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) reported palliseri as a species under the 
Genus Lobopelta and mentioned its locality as 
Kanara, besides other localities. He (op. cit.) noted 
"L palliseri Forel, 1900 resembles L. diminuta 
(Smith, 1857), but is much more robustly built and 
larger body size". Subsequently, Chapman and 
Capco (1951) also reported this subspecies from 
Kanara. 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 



27. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) carinata 

Donisthorpe 

1943. Lobopelta cahiuita Donisthorpe, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
(11) 10 : 220. 

1 95 1 . Leptogeny.s (Lobopelta) carinata, ChapiTian and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech.. Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia). 1 : 32. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. 

Remarks : No material of this specie.s could be 
available for the study. However, Chapman and 
Capco (1951) recorded this species and mentioned 
"India : Travancore" as its locality". 

28. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) roberti 

coonoorensis Forel 

1900. Lobopelta coonoorensis Forel, / Bombay Nat. Hist. 
Soc, 13 : 306 & 311, 5. 

1903. Lobopelta coonoorensis, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hyinenoptera. 2 : 68, ^. 

1951. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) roberti coonoorensis. 
Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila 
(Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 38. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kerala and 
Western India. 

Remarks : The specimen of this subspecies could 
not be available for this study. Bingham (1903), 
however, reported coonoorensis as a species under 
the Genus Lobopelta and mentioned its distribution 
as "Western India, the Nilgiri Hills". He (op. cit.) 
also noted, "L. coonoorensis ¥ovt\, 1 900 resembles 
L. roberti Forel, 1900, but is slightly larger and 
darker, with a proportionately larger head and 
shorter mandibles, which latter are longitudinally 
striate." 

29. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) longiscapus 

Donisthorpe 

1943. Lobopelta longiscapus Donisthorpe, Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hi.st., 10 : 199. 



1951. Leptogenys (Lolwpelta) longiscapus. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 37. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. 

Remarks : No material of this species were 
available for this study. However, Chapman and 
Capco (1951) listed this species in their check list 
and mentioned "India : Travancore" as its locality. 

30. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) dalyi Forel 

1900. Lobopelta dalyi Forel, / Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 13 
: 306 & 311, 5. 

1951. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) dalyi. Chapman and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia), 1 : 33. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala, Kamataka, Tamil 
Nadu. Elsewhere ; China. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. Bingham (1903 : 67), 
however, reported this species under the Genus 
Lobopelta and mentioned its distribution as 
"Western India, the Nilgiris, Kanara, Mysore and 
Cochin". 

7. Genus Diacamma Mayr 

1862. Diacamma Mayr, Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 12 : 
718, 5. 

Type-species : Ponera rugosa Le Guillou, 1841, from 
Borneo (Indonesia). 

Key to the Species of Diacamma 

1. Colour black; head elongate oval, 
proportionately shorter; pronotum with 
concentric striae on the disc enclosing one or 
two transverse or longitudinal striae; node of 
pedicel rounded anteriorly; nodal spines 



TIWARl : Taxonoinic Studies on Ants of Southern India 

attenuate at base, pointing obliquely outwards 
and forming a distinct angle with the upper 

surface of the node; abdomen massive 

...nigosuni 

— Colour black with beautiful greenish bronzy 
tint; head oval, proportionately longer; 
pronotum with one to four transverse striae 
surrounded by concentric striae; node of 
pedicel gradually slopped anteriorly; nodal 
spines rather thick at base, pointing 
backwards in continuation of the upper 
surface of the node, not obliquely outwards; 
abdomen proportionately narrower and 
elongate ^«i?«'« 

3 1 . Diacamma vagans (Smith) 

I860. Ponera vajans Smith, ./. Proc. Unit. Soc, 5 : 103, $. 
1903. Diacamma vagans. Bingham, Fauna Brit. India. 

Hymenoptera, 2 : 81, 2, Cf. 
191 1. Diacamma nigosum vagans, Emery, Genera Insect.. 

118 ; 67. 
1994. Diacamma vagcms. Tiwari et al., Slate Faima Series 

3 : Fauna of West Bengal. Part 8 ; 238. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Salem, several workers, 22.ii.1969, coll. O. 
B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari; Suranganar Reserve 
Forest. 15 workers, 23.ii. 1969, coll. O. B. Chhotani 
and R. N. Tiwari; Coimbatore, Tudiyalur, several 
workers, 26.ii.1969, ex. Supari Nut tree, coll. O. 
B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 
Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kamataka, 
Orissa, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, 
Andaman Is. Elsewhere : Burma, Sri Lanka, 
Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, Vietnam, Taiwan, 
New Guinea, Batchian Is. (Pacific). 
Biological notes : It nests in the soil at the base 
of trees (Seeson, 1941). In Southern India, it is 
collected from Mango and 'Supari' nut trees, may 
be while going in search of food. 
Remarks : This species is known by a number of 
varieties from different places. Bingham (1903) 
also mentioned its locality as "Kanara", besides 



2.5 



Other localities. He [op. cii.) further noted tlitit this 
species was originally described from Batchian Is 

Diacamma nigosum (Le Guillou) 

1841. Ponera rugosa Le Guillou, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr.. 10 ; 

318. 
1900. Diacamma rugosum. Forel, J. Botnhay Nat. Hist. 

Soc, 13 : 318, $. 

32. Diacamma rugosum ceylonensis Emery 

1 897. Diacamma ceylonense EmerJ-, Rend. Ace. Sci. Bolog.. 

1 : 15> & 165. 5- 
1903. Diacamma ceylonense, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 

Hymenoptera, 2 ; 79, $. 
1911. Diacamma nigosum ceylonensis. Emery, Genera 

Insect., 118 : 66. 
1 95 1 . Diacamma rugosum ceylonensis. Chapman and Capco, 

Monogr. Inst. Scl. Tech.. Manila (Check List Ants 

Asia), 1 : 57. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Periyakulam, several workers, 22.ii.1969, 
coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari; Madurai, 
Lower camp, several workers, 24.ii.1969, coll. O. 
B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kerala. 
Elsewhere : Sri Lanka. 

Remarks : Bingham (1903) mentioned its 
distribution as "Cochin, Ceylon" and recorded it 
as a species. But he (op. cit.) noted that he was not 
very certain about this species and mentioned "it 
closely resembles Diacamma scitlptum (Jerdon, 
1851), but it is slightly larger, very black, brilliant 
and shining and the pubescence is not more but 
less dense". 

33. Diacamma rugosum vaT.jerdoni Forel 

1903. Diacamma nigosum \w. jerdonl Forel, Rev. Suisse 

ZooL. 11 ; 400, ^. 
1951. Diacamma nigosum var. jerdoni. Chapman and Capco, 

Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech.. Manila (Check List Ants 

Asia). 1 : 55. 

Material examined ; Nil. 
Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. 



26 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 



Remarks : The material of this variety could not 
be available for this study. However, Chapman 
and Capco (1951) noted in their Check list that 
Donisthorpe (1942, 1943) reported this variety 
from Malabar and Travancore (Kerala) respectively. 

34. Diacamma riigosum var. sculptum (Jerdon) 
1851. Ponera sculpta Jerdon. Madras J. Lit. ScL, 17 : 1 17, 

1900. Diacamma geometricum, Forel (nee Smith), J. Bombay 
Nat. Hist. Soc. 13 : 319, $?. 

1903. Diacamma sculptum, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 80. $. 

1 93 1 . Diacamma rugosum var. sculptum. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia). 1 : 56. 

1994. Diacamma rugosum var. sculptum, Tiwari et al.. 
State Fauna Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal 
Part 8 : 238. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil 
Nadu, Sikkim, West Bengal. Elsewhere : China, 
Sri Lanka, Taiwan (Formosa), Philippines, 
Indonesia (Borneo), Singapore. 

Remarlis : No specimens of this variety could be 
available for this study. However, Bingham (1903) 
reported the sculptum as a species and mentioned 
its distribution as "Sikkim; Barrackpore, Bengal; 
Kanara; Mysore; Malabar, the Nilgiri hills; Cochin; 
Travancore; Ceylon". Prior to this, Jerdon (1851) 
first described this species under the genus Ponera 
from Malabar, Nilgiri (Southern India). 

35. Diacamma cyaniventre Andre 

1887. Diacamma cyaniventre Er. Andre, Rev. d'Ent., 6 : 
293, 5. 

1 900. Diacamma rugosum race cyaniventre, Forel, / Bombay 
Nat. Hist. Sac, 13 : 318, §. 

1903. Diacamma cyaneiventre, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 78, $. 



1951 . Diacamma cyaniventre, Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 
Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 ; 
54. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. Elsewhere : Sri 
Lanka. 

Remarks : The material of this species could be 
available for this study. Bingham (1903), however, 
recorded this species and mentioned its localities 
as 'Cochin and Ceylon'. 

8. Genus Ectomomyrmex Mayr 

1867. Ectomomyrmex Mayr, Tijdschr. v. Ent., 10 : 83. 

Type-species : E. javanus Mayr, 1867, from Java 
(Indonesia). 

36. Ectomomyrmex annamitus (Andre) 

1892. Ponera anncunita Er. Andre, Rev. d'Ent. 11 ; 48. 

1903. Ectomoinymex cmnamitus, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 87, ^, 9. 

1 95 1 . Ectomomyrmex annamita. Chapman and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia), 1 : 60. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. Elsewhere : Burma, 
Annam, Gulf of Siam, Philippines. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) recorded this species from Calicut of South 
India. 

37. Ectomomyrmex leeuwenhoeki (Forel) 

1886. Ponera leeuwenhoeki Forel, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 
55 : 244. 

1903. Ectomomyrmex leeuwenhoeki, Bingham, Fauna Brit. 
India, Hymenoptera, 2 : 88, ?J. 

1951. Ectomomyrmex leeuwenhoeki. Chapman and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia), 1 : 62. 

Material examined : Nil. 



TIWARI : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 



27 



Distribution : INDIA : Kerala, Assam. Elsewhere : 
Burma, Singapore. 

Remarks : The material of this species Could not 
be available for this study. However, Biilgham 
(1903) reported this species from Calicut (Kerala). 

9. GefiilS ffdthf-opohem Mayr 

1862. Bothroponera Mayr, Verh. zool-bdt. Oei. Wien. 12 : 
717. 

Type-species : B. pumicosa (Roger, 1862), from South 
Africa. 

Key to the Species of Bothfopoitera 

1. Body colour dull black to castaneous red; 
head, thorax and abdomen minutely 
reticulate-punctate; clypeus convex in the 
middle and subcarinate; node of pedicel as 
broad as long, flat and equally truncated 
anteriorly and posteriorly sulcata 

— Body colour dull opaque black to reddish 
yellow; head, thorax and abdomen finely 
and very closely reticulate-punctate; clypeus 
transverse, nicdially sharply carinate; node 
of pedicel a litde broader than long, roundly 
truncated anteriorly and abruptly truncated 
posteriorly nibiginosa 

38. Bothroponera henryi Donisthorpe 

1942. Bothroponera henryi Donisthorpe, Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist.. (11)9: 449, 5. 

1 9.5 1 . Bothroponera henryi, Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 
In.st. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 
50. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu. 

Remarlcs : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. Chapman and Capco 
(1951), however, mentioned "Southern India : 
Dohnavur (Tinnelvelly Dist.)" as its locality. 



*39. Bothroponera nibiginosa (Emery) 

1889. Ponera nibiginosa Emery, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 
Genova. 11 : 498, ^. 

1903. Bothroponera rubiginosa, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hyinenoptera, 2 : 99, 5- 

1911. Pacliycondyla (Bothroponera) nibiginosa, Emery, 
Genera Insect., 118 : 77. 

1951. Bothroponera nibiginosa. Chapman and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. Scl. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia), 1 : 50. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Salem, several workers, 10.ii.l969, ex. 
ground surface of soil, coll. O. B. Chhotanl and R. 
N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra. 
Elsewhere : Burma, China. 

*40. Bothroponera sulcata (Frauenfeld) 

1867. Poriera sulcata Fraucnfdd, Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien. 
17 ■ 441, $. 

1903. Bothroponera sulcata, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hyinenoptera. 2 : 98, §, cf. 

1911. Bothroponera (Bothroponera) sulcata. Emery, Genera 
Insect., 118 : 78. 

1994. Bothroponera sulcata, Tiwari el ai, State Fauna 
Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 ; 237. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Andhra 
Pradesh : Guntur, several workers, 25.vii.1961, 
coll. J. N. Maligi; Tamil Nadu : Madurai, several 
workers, 15.ii.l969, coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. 
N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Andhra Pradesh, Tamil 
Nadu, West Bengal, Central and Western India. 

Remarks : "Dr. Forel has described two varieties 
under the names sulcato-tesserinoda and fossulata. 
The former has characters intermediate between B. 
sulcata and B. tesserinoda; and the latter differs 
from typical B. sulcata in having the posterior 



28 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 



half of the head with scattered large shallow 
punctures". (Bingham, 1903 : 99). 

4 1 . Bothroponera tesserinoda (Mayr) 

1878. Ponera tesserinoda, Mayr, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien. 

28 : 661 & 663, $. 
1903. Bothroponera tesserinoda, Bingham, Fauna Brit. 

India, Hynienoptera, 2 ; 97, $, Cf. 
1911. Pachycondyla {Bothroponera} tesserinoda Emery. 

Genera Insect., 118 ; 78. 

1942. Pachycondyla (Bothroponera) tesserinoda, 
Donisthorpc, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., London. (11)9; 
449. 

1951. Bothroponera tesserinoda, Chapman and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia), 1 ; 51. 

1994. Bothroponera tesserinoda, Tiwari et al, State Fauna 
Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 237. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kerala 
(Cochin) to Uttar Pradesh (Dehra Dun), West 
Bengal, Assam. Elsewhere : Sri Lanka and Burma. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) mentioned "Dehra Dun to Cochin" and 
Donisthorpe (1942) mentioned "Dohnavur, 
Tinnelvelly Dist."as it localities from South India. 

42. Bothroponera rufipes (Jerdon) 
1851. Ponera rufipes Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci., 17 : 119, 

1858. Pachycondyla rufipes. Smith, Cat. Hyin. Brit. Mus., 

6 : 106. 
1903. Bothroponera rufipes, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 

Hyinenoptera, 2 ; 96, 5. 
1911. Pachycondyla (Bothroponera) rufipes, Emery, Genera 

Insect, 118 : 76. 

1951. Bothroponera rufipes. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 
Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 50. 



1994. Bothroponera rufipes, Tiwari et al. State Fauna Series 
3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 236. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka, Kerala 
(Malabar), Western India, Himalayas from Siwaliks 
to Assam, West Bengal. Elsewhere : Sri Lanka, 
Burma. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Jerdon (1851) 
described the species rufipes under the genus 
Ponera from Malabar. Bingham (1903) also 
reported this species under the genus Bothroponera 
and mentioned its distribution as "Himalayas from 
the Siwaliks to Assam, and upto 4000 ft.; Bengal; 
Western India, Kanara to Malabar; Ceylon, and 
throughout Burma". 

10. Genus Ponera Latreille 

1804. Ponera Latreille, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., 24 : 179. 
Type-species : P. coarctata Latreille, 1804, from Europe. 

*43. Ponera truncata Smith 

1860. Ponera truncata Smith, J. Proc. Linn. Soc, S ; 72, 5- 

1903. Ponera truncata, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hyinenoptera, 2 : 90, ?. 

1951 . Ponera truncata. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. 
Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 73. 

1994. Ponera truncata, Tiwari et al., State Fauna Series 
3 ; Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 ; 246. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Top-Slip, near Sirkarpadi Tunnel entry, 12 
workers, 18.ii.I969, coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. 
N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, West Bengal. 
Elsewhere : Burma, Indonesia (Celebes, Borneo, 
Java), Formosa (Taiwan). 



TIWARI : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 

44. Ponera confinis Roger 

I860. Ponera confinis Roger, Berl. ent. Zeit.. 4 : 284, 5. 
1860. Ponera simillima Smith. ./. Proc. Linn. Soc, 5 : 105, 

VV)T,, Ponera confinis. Bingham, Fauna Brit. India. 
Hvmenoplera, 2 : 91, $, 9- 

1 951 . Ponera confinis. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. 
Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 69. 

1994. Pcmera confinis, Tiwari et al. State Fauna Series 3 : 
Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 246. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka, Western India, 
West Bengal, Elsewhere : Sri Lanka, Oceania, 
Indonesia (Sumatra). 

Rem rks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) reported this species and mentioned its 
localities as "Bengal, Western India, Kanara and 
Ceylon". 

45. Penera stenocheilos Jerdon 

1851 . Ponera stenocheilos Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci.. 17 : 

118,*^. 
1951. Ponera stenocheilos. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 

Inst. Sci. Tech.. Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 

72. 



Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu and Kerala 
(Malabar). 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. While describing this 
species, Jerdon (1851) mentioned that he had 
found this ant very rarely in Malabar. He {op. cit.) 
further noted some important characters of the 
worker of this species like "Head large square 
behind, pointed anteriorly; antennae long; jaws 
very long, linear, ending in a strong tooth; thorax 
narrow; abdominal pedicel raised, round, pointing 
backwards; abdomen very long; sting large; legs 
long; colour dingy greenish brown". Later on, 



29 



Chapman and Capco (1951) also recorded this 
species from Madras (Tamil Nadu). 

46. Ponera sulcato-fossulata Forel 

1900. Ponera sulcato-fossulata Forel, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. 

Soc, 13 : 326, $. 
195L Ponera sulcato-fossulata. Chapman and Capco, 

Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 

Asia), 1 ; 73. 
Material examined : Nil. 
Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu. 
Remarks : The specimens of this species could 
not be available for this study. However, Chapman 
and Capco (1951) reported this species in their 
moriograph and mentioned its locality as "Madras". 

47. Ponera affinis Jerdon 

1 85 1 . Ponera affinis Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci., 17 : 1 1 8, $. 

1951. Ponera affinis. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. 
Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 68. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala (Malabar). 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Jerdon (1851) 
described the worker of this species from 'Malabar' 
and noted some important characters of this species 
like "Body length l/3rd of an inch; head oblong, 
notched behind, advanced anteriorly; jaws 
triangular, strongly toothed; antennae thickened at 
the tip; eyes somewhat anterior, moderately large; 
thorax slight'.y grooved; abdominal pedicel pointed, 
thin; abdomen oval; colour dingy black". 

1 1 . Genus Euponera Forel 

186L Euponera Forel, in Grandidier, Hist. Nat. Phys. 
Madagascar, 20 : 126. 
Type-species : Formica stigma Fabricius, 1793. 

Subgenus Trachymesopus Emery 

1911. Euponera, subgen. Trachymesopus Emery, Genera 
Insect., 118 : 86. 



i-6fZSifCa\.l9& 



30 



48. Euponera (Trachymesopus) darwini (Forel) 

1 893. Belonopelta darwini Forel, Amis. Soc. Ent, Btlf., 3^ 
: 460, 9. 

1903. Pseudoponera darwini, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 93, 9- 

1911. Euponera (Trachymesopus) darwini, Emery, Oenefd 
Insect., 118 : 86. 

1951. Euponera (Trachymesopus) darwini. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 ; ; 65. 

1959, Trachymesopus darwini, Wilson, Bull. Mm. Comp. 
Zool. Harvard, Cambridge, 119 (1958) : 352. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Top-Slip, Several workers, 17.ii.l969, coll. 
O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kamataka. 
Elsewhere : West Australia, Congo, Madagascar, 
Malacca, Singapore, Philippines, Indonesia 
(Sumatra, Borneo), China, Kalimantan, Sri Lanka, 
Formosa (Taiwan). 

Remarks : Bingham (1903) also reported this 
species and mentioned its localities as "Kanara 
and Ceylon". However, he (op. cit.) noted that the 
species was described from West Australia and 
quoted "Dr. Forel has separated the Indian species 
as var. indica, which differs from the Australian 
species by shorter and squarer head, the female is 
unknown". 

12. Genus Cryptopone Emery 

1893. Cryptopone Emery, Ann. Soc. Ent Fr., : 240. 

Type-species : Amblyopone testacea Motschulsky, 1 863, 
recorded so far only from Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon). 

49. Cryptopone testacea (Motschulsky) 

1 863. Amblyopone testacea Motsch., Bull. Soc. Nat Mosc, 
36 (2) : 15, 9. 

1 893. Cryptopone testacea, Emery, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. : 240, 

1903. Cryptopone testacea, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hytnenoptera, 2 : 104, $, 9. 



Memoirs of the Zetjtegieal SUfVfey Of India 

1943. Ci-^pt&p'oH'e mt&c'ed, Donisthorpe. Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., 10 : 196. 

1951. Co'j opone testacea. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 
Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 
53. 

Milterial examined : Nil. 

Distribution l INDIA : Kerala (Malabar). 

Remarks i The species could not be available for 
this Study. HoWevet-, Donisthorpe (1943) reported 
this Species from Nadungayam (200 ft.), Malabar, 
Southern India. 

50. Cryptopone rufotestaceus Donisthorpe 

1 943 . Cryptopone rufotestaceus Donisthorpe, Ann. Mag. Nat 
Hist.. 10 : 197. 

1951. CryprapoWe mfdte'sfaceus. Chapman and Capco, 
Mofibgr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia)-, 1 : 53. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. 

Remarks ! The species could not be available for 
this Study. However, Donisthorpe (1943) reported 
this species and mentioned its locality as 
"Travancore, Kerala", 

13. Genus Bfachyponera Emery 

1901. Bmchypbnera Emery (Euponera Forel, Subgen. 
Brachyponera), Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 45 : 43. 

Type-species : Ponera senaarensis Mayr, 1862, from 
Arabia. 

51. Brachyponera jerdoni (Forel) 

1900. Ponera jerdoni Forel, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 13 : 
324 & 327, $. 

1903. Brachyponera jerdoni, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 102, $. 

1951. Euponera (Brachyponera) jerdoni. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 63. 



TlWARl ; Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 



31 



1 959. Bnidnponem jerdoni, Wilson, Bull. Mus. Camp. Zool. 
Harvard, Cambridge, 119 (1958) : 346. 

1994. Brachyponera jerdoni, Tiwari et at.. State Fauna 
Series 3 : Fauna of We.st Bengal, Part 8 : 240. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala, Western India, 
Assam, West Bengal. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) recorded this species from "Bengal, Western 
and Southern India and Assam". Subsequently, 
Chapman and Capco (1951) also reported this 
species and mentioned "India : Travancore" as its 
locality. 

52. Brachyponera luteipes (Mayr) 

1862. Ponera luteipes Mayr, Verli. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 
12 : 722, $, 9. 

1903. Brachyponera luteipes, Bingtiam, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 ; 101, 5, 9, Cf. 

1951. Euponera (Brachyponera) luteipes. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 63. 

1959. Brachyponera luteipes, Wilson, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool. Harvard, Cambridge, 119 (1958) : 346. 

1994. Brachyponera luteipes, Tiwari et al., State Fauna 
Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 241. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala, West Bengal and 
mostly throughout India. Elsewhere : Burma, Sri 
Lanka, Indonesia (Java, Sumatra), Philippines, 
Malay peninsula. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. Chapman and Capco 
(1951), however, mentioned "Southern India : 
Travancore" as its locality. 

53. Brachyponera luteipes var. continentalis 

Karawajew 

1925. Euponera (Brachyponera) luteipes var. continentalis 
Karawajew, Konowia, 4 : 125, 5- 



] 95 1 . Euponera (Brachyponera) luteipes var. continentalis. 
Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila 
(Check List Ants Asia), 1 ; 64. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka. 

Remarks : The material of this variety could not 
be available for this study. But, Chapman and 
Capco (1951) reported this variety under the genus 
Euponera (Brachyponera) and mentioned 
"Kanara" as its locality. 

14. Genus Mesoponera Emery 

1901. Mesoponera Emery (Euponera Forel, Subgen. 
Mesoponera Emery), Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 45 : 43. 

Type-species ; Ponera caffraria Smith, 1858, from. South 
Africa. 

54. Mesoponera melanaria Emery 

1893. Ponera melanaria Emery, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 
62 : 260, 5- 

1903. Mesoponera melanaria, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 100, ?, 9. 

1 942. Euponera (Mesoponera) melanaria, Donisthorpc, Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist. London, (11) 9 : 449. 

1951. Euponera (Mesoponera) melanaria. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 64. 

1959. Mesoponera melanaria, Wilson, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool. Harvard, Cambridge, 119 : 361. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Dstribution : INDIA : Karnataka, Kerala and 
Western India. Elsewhere : Sri Lanka, Lower 
Burma, Indonesia (Sumatra), Singapore. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Donisthorpe 
(1942) reported this species from Nadungayam 
(200 ft.), Malabar, Southern India. Subsequently, 
Chapman and Capco (1951) recorded this species 
and mentioned its locality as "Kanara". 



32 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 



15. Genus Platythyrea Roger 

1863. Platythyrea Roger. Bed. Em. Zeit, 7 : 172. 

Type-species : Pachycondyla punctata Smith, 1858, from 
St. Domingo, America. 

55. Platythyrea sagei Forel 

1900. Platythyrea sagei Forel, / Bombay Nat Hist Soc, 
13 : 314 & 315, 5. 

1903. Platythyrea sagei, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 74, 5- 

1 95 1 . Platythyrea sagei, Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. 
Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 49. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka, Punjab. 
Elsewhere : Singapore. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. However, Bingham (1903) 
reported this species and quoted its localities as 
"India, recorded so far-only from the Punjab and 
from kanara". Later on. Chapman and Capco 
(1951) also recorded this species from kanara and 
Punjab. 

56. Platythyrea wroughtoni Forel 

1900. Platythyrea wroughtoni Forel, J. Bombay Nat Hist. 
Soc, 13 : 315, §. 

1903. Platythyrea wroughtoni, Bingham, Fauna Brit India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 75, 5. 

1 95 1 . Platyihyrea wroughtoni. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 
Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 49. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala, Karnataka and 
Tamil Nadu. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. Bingham (1903), 
however, reported this species from Travancore, 
Mysore and Madras. 

57. Platythyrea wroughtoni var. victoriae Forel 

1900. Platythyrea victoriae Forel, J. Bombay Nat. Hist 
Soc, 13 : 315 & 316, 5- 



1903. Platythyrea victoriae, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 75, $. 

1951. Platythyrea wroughtoni \w. victoriae, Chapman and 
Capco, IV. ;nogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Anis Asia), 1 : 49. 

1994. Platythyrea wroughtoni \"dr. victoriae, Tiwari er a/., 
State Fauna Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 
8 : 246. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka, West Bengal 
and Western India. 

Remarks : The material of this variety could not 
be available for this study. Bingham (1903) reported 
victoriae as a species under the genus Platythyrea 
and mentioned its localities as "Bengal, Western 
India and Mysore". He {op. cit.) also noted "it is 
very similar to P. wroughtoni Forel, 1900; in fact 
a barely separable race. Larger, with comparatively 
shorter antennae, the antennal carinae distinctly 
more swollen and broader. Thorax with the 
metanotum as in P. wroughtoni, but not so deeply 
emarginate posteriorly. Node of the pedicel 
comparatively shorter, about one and a half (twice 
in P. wroughtoni) as long as broad". Subsequently, 
Chapman and Capco (1951) also reported victoriae 
as a variety under the species P. wrouglitoni from 
Mysore, Southern Idnia. 

1 6. Genus Amblyopone Erichson 

1842. Amblyopone Erichson, Arch. Naturg., 8 : 260. 

Type-species : A. australis Erichson, 1 842, from Australia. 

58. Amblyopone belli Forel 

1900. Amblyopone belli Forel, / Bombay Nat Hist. Soc, 
13 : 55, §. 

1903. Stigmatomma belli, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 38, §. 

1951. Stigmatomma belli. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 
Inst. Sci.. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 
24. 

1960. Amblyopone belli. Brown Jr., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
122 (5) : 162. 



TlWARl : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 



33 



Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka and Western 

India, 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) reported this species and mentioned its 
localities as "Western India and Kanara". Chapman 
and Capco (1951) also recorded this species from 
kanara. 

III. Subfamily CERAPACHYINAE Forel 

This small subfamily, found in the tropical 
regions of the world, exhibits a blending of doryline 
and ponerine traits both morphologically and 
biologically. Little is known concerning the 
behaviour, but they are predaceous and carnivorous 
and the colonies are small. Wilson (1959) studied 
the behaviour of several species from Melanesia 
and Australia and found them all to be 
myrmecophagous, feeding on the broods and 
sometimes adults of other species of ants. He {op. 
cit.) suggested that these ants carry on an alternating 
group foraging and raiding behaviour pattern by 
which the colony efficiently exploits the 
surrounding territory. 

However, Brown (1976) does not recognise 
this subfamily Cerapachyinae and is of opinion 
that the two tribes Cerapachyini and 
Acanthostichini should be treated as the tribes of 
subfamily Ponerinae. 

17. Genus Lioponera Mayr 

1878. Lioponera Mayr, Verh. zool.-bot. Ces. Wien, 28 : 
666. 
Type-species ; L longitarus, Mayr, 1878, from West 
Bengal, India. 

59. Lioponera longitarsus Mayr 

1878. Lioponera longitarsus Mayr, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. 

Wien, 28 : 667, ?, 9- 
1900. Lioponera longitarsus, Forel, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. 

Soc, 13 : 329, C?, 9- 
1903. Lioponera longitarsus, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India., 

Hymenoptera, 2 ; 27, *J, 9. Cf- 



1994. Lioponera longitarsus, Tiwari et ai. State Fauna 
Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 ; 234. 



Material examined : Nil, 



Distribution : INDIA: Kerala, Maharashtra, West 
Bengal. Elsewhere : Indonesia (Sumatra), Formosa. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. However, Bingham (1903) 
mentioned its localities as "Bengal and Western 
India, Poona to Travancore". 

60. Lioponera parva Forel 

1900. Lioponera parva Forel, ./. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 
13 : 330, 5, Cf, 

1903. Lioponera parva, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 27, $, C?. 

1994. Lioponera parva, Tiwari et ai. State Fauna Series 3 
: Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 ; 234. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, 
West Bengal and Western India. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. Bingham (1903), 
however, reported this species and mentioned its 
localities as "Dehra Dun, Bengal, Madras and 
Western India". 

IV. Subfamily PSEUDOMYRMECINAE Emery 

This is a small subfamily with one genus in the 
New World and several genera in the Old World 
tropics. Smith (1951) named the subfamily 
Leptaleinae based on the genus Leptalea Erichson 
but later on, he (1952) found an earlier generic 
name Pseudomyrmex Lund, and changed the 
subfamily name to Pseudomyrmecinae which has 
become widely established. The species of this 
subfamily are most virulent, the sting being most 
painful and sometimes causing considerable 
inflammation. They are arborial in nature. They 
make their nests in the dead wood of trees and 
very often, in the clefts of the beams and posts of 
wooden houses. By habit , they are feroceous in 



34 Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 

nature, particularly Tetraponera rufonigra is called Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Karnataka 
'Lohari' in Northern India, meaning the Black- and Western India. Elsewhere : Sri Lanka. 

smith, this name has been given because of it's „ , ' , .^^^^^ ,. , 

Remarlcs : Forel (1902) did not give the exact 

tierce nature. , ,. , •, . •, • , • • ^- , 

locality while describing this species. Bingham 

18. Genus Tetraponera Smith (1903), however, recorded it from Western India 

and Ceylon with some doubt. He {op. cit.) also 
1852. Tetraponera (pt.) Smith, Ann. Mae. Nat. Hist., (2) .. j ^u . i i . . • r r^ • t . 

noted that he had two specimens from Sri Lanka 

9 . 44 ^ 

(formerly Ceylon) and thought them to belong to 

Type-species : Pseudomyrma allaborans Walker, 1859, a variety of aitkeni as they differed from Forel 's 

from Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon). (1902) original description of the species aitkeni 

in some characters. The present specimens from 

Subgenus Tetraponera Emery Southern India, collected from coconut trees, come 

1900. Tetraponera Emery, {Sima Roger, Subgen. ^o aitkeni Forel when run through Bingham's 

Tetraponera Emery), Ann. Mus. Civ. Star Nat. (1903) key. Emery (1921) has recorded it from 

Genova. 40 ; 673. Kanara. But subsequently. Chapman and Capco 

(1951) also reported this species from Kanara. 
Key to the Species of Tetraponera (Tetraponera) 

1 . Ocelli present in $ rufonigra *62. Tetraponera (Tetraponera) allaborans 

Walker 

— Ocelli not present in $ 2 

1859. Pseudomyrma allaborans Walker, Ann. Mag. Nat. 

2. Petiole anteriorly of 1st node shorter than //,-^.j q) 4-375 c? 

node itself 3 

1863. Sima compressa Roger, Berl. Ent. Zeitschr.. 7 : 179. 

— Petiole anteriorly of 1 st node as long as, but , ggg. sima subtilis Emery, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 
distinctly not longer than node itself 27 • 500 5 

nigra 

1903. Sima allaborans, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 

3. In profile, metanotum not higher than pro- Hymenoptera, 2 : 113, *?. 

mesonotum allaborans ,ooi c- /t , ^ ,i i r ^ 

1 92 1 . Sima (Tetraponera) allaborans, Emery, Genera Insect., 

— In profile, metanotum distinctly very much ^'^^ ^ ■ 25. 

higher than pro-mesonotum aitkeni 1951. Tetraponera (Tetraponera) allaborans, C\\a.pmm wd 

Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
6 1 . Tetraponera (Tetraponera) aitkeni (Forel) ^^^^ ^^-g. j . j^ 

1902. Sima aitkeni Forel, Rev. Suisse ZooL, 10 : 245, $. 1994. Tetraponera (Tetraponera) allaborans, Tiwari et ai, 

1903. Sima aitkeni. Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, State Fauna Series 3, : Fauna ofWest Bengal, Part 8 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 115, $. : 251. 

1921. Sima (Tetraponera) aitkeni, Emery, Genera Insect., Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 

174 A : 25. Nadu : Top-Slip, 17 workers, 17.ii.l969, ex. Mango 

1951. Tetraponera (Tetraponera) aitkeni. Chapman and ^'^^ ^™"''' '^°"- *^- ^- Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, 

Ants Asia), 1 : 78. Western India. Elsewhere : Sri Lanka, Burma, 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil Indonesia (Sumatra), Kalimantan, China. 

Nadu : Periyakulam, Tudiyalur near Coimbatore, Biological notes : Collected from a mango tree 

several workers, I6.ii.l969, ex. ground surface, trunk, running along the gf Ueries of OJontotermej 

coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. sp. (Isoptera). 



TlWARl : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 



35 



63. Tetraponera (Tetraponera) ruf(migw 

(Jerdon) 

1851. Ecim mfon'mm Jerdon, Minim i- Ut. Sd, 17 ; 

1903. Simci mfonigra. Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 108, §, 9- 

1921. Sima(Sima) rufonigiri, V-mery, Genera Insect.. 174 
A : 23. 

1943. Sima rufonigra, Donisthorpe, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, 
(11)10: 

1951. Tetraponera (Tetraponera) rufonigra. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Mmiki (Check List 
Ants Asift), 1 : 81. 

1994. T^impamra (Tetraponera) rufonigra. Tiwari et ai, 
State Fauna Series 3 ; Fauna of West Bengal, Part 
8 : 252. 

Material examined 5 SOUTH INDIA ; Tamil 
Nadu : Tudiyalur, near Coimbatore, 7 workers, 
16. ii. 1969, ex. Supari tree, coll. O. B. Chhotani 
and R. N. Tiwari; Palayamkottai, several workers, 
28.ii.1969, ex. soil, coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. N. 
Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, 
Kerala and mostly widely distributed species in 
India. Elsewhere ; Burma, Sri Lanka, Singapore, 
Indonesia (Java, Sumatra), China. 

Remarks : This species is most virulent, its sting 
is being most painful and sometimes causing 
considerable inflammation (Bingham, 1903). 

64, Tetraponera (Tetraponera) nigra (Jerdon) 

1851. Eciton nigrum Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci.. 17 : 112, 

1852. Tetraponera atrata Smith, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (2) 
9 : 44. 

1863. Pseudomyrma carbonaria Sm'nh, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. 
7 : 20, 5, 9. 

1903. Sima nigra. Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 110, $, 9. 



1921. Sima (Tetraponera) nigra, Emery, Genera Insect., 
174 A : 26. 

\%\. Tmiponem (Tetraponera) nisra, Chapfnan and 

Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 80. 

1994, Tetraponera (Tetraponera) nigra, Tiwari et al.. State 
Fauna Series 3 : Faima of West Bengal, Part 8 : 25 1 . 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Lower Camp, several workers, 24.ii.1969, 
ex. soil, coll. O. B, Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kerala, 
Karnataka, Maharashtra, Sikkim, West Bengal, 
but widely distributed in India. Elsewhere : Sri 
Lanka, Burma and extends into the Malayan 
subregion. 

Remarks : Bingham (1903) also recorded this 
species and mentioned its localities as "Sikkim, 
Bengal, Poona, the Malabar Coast, Kanara, Ceylon, 
Burma and it extends into the Malayan subregion". 
Bingham (op. cit.) further noted "This, like 5. 
rufonigra, is a tree-ant and almost as fierce as that 
species; its sting, however, is not so severe. 
Sometimes S. nigra forms its nest in hollow thorns". 

65. Tetraponera {Tetraponera) nigra fergusoni 

(Forel) 

1902. Sima nigra Smith, rdce fergusoni Forel, Rev. Suisse 
Zool., 10 ; 248. 

1903. Sitna fergusoni, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 114, *^. 

1951. Tetraponera (Tetraponera) nigra Smith, subsp. 
fergusoni. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. 
Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 81. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. Elsewhere : Lower 
Burma. 

Remarks : No specimens of this subspecies 
could be available for this study. However, 
Bingham (1903) reported fergusoni as a species 
under the genus Sima and mentioned its locality 
as "Travancore" from Southern India. 



36 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 



66. Tetraponera (Tetraponera) difficilis 
longiceps (Forel) 

1902. Sima difficilis Emery, race longiceps Forel, Rev. 
Suisse ZooL. 10 : 247, $. 

1903. Sima longiceps. Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2: 115, 5 • 

1951. Tetraponera (Tetraponera) difficilis subsp. longiceps. 
Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila 
(Check Lisl Ants Asia), 1 : 79. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. 

Remarks : The material of this subspecies could 
not be available for this study. Bingham (1903), 
however, recorded this as Sima longiceps from 
Travancore, South India. 

67. Tetraponera (Tetraponera) rufipes (Jerdon) 

1851. Eciton rufipes Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci., 17 : 112, 

1903. Eciton rufipes. Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera. 2 : 1 16, ?. 

1 95 1 . Tetraponera (Tetraponera) rufipes. Chapman and 
Capco. Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech.. Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 81. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu. 

Remarks : No specimens of this species could 
be available for this study. Jerdon (1851) first 
described this species under the genus Eciton and 
at the same time he mentioned that he had only 
found this species on one occasion under a stone 
in Salem district (South India). He (op. cit.) also 
noted some important characters of the worker of 
this species as "Body length ll/48th of an inch; 
head oblong; eyes very large, slightly advanced; 
thorax considerably grooved, abdominal pedicel 
long, low; abdomen long, ovate, black with rufous 
legs". Subsequendy, Chapman and Capco (1951) 
recorded this species under the genus Tetraponera 
(Tetraponera) in their monograph and also 
mentioned its locality as "Salem district". 



V. Subfamily MYRMICINAE Lepeletier 

This is the largest subfarriily of ants and is 
found throughout the world. In phylogenetic tree, 
it stands at the top, i.e., it has adapted to the 
highest adaptation and as such the sizes have 
appreciably reduced. This subfamily can be 
distinguished from the other subfamily of the 
family Formicidae by the pedicel being distinctly 
two-jointed in all sexes. The neuters of the genus 
Aenictus also have two-jointed pedicel, but they 
are absolutely without eyes and ocelli. The antennae 
are long, thick and massive planted extremely 
close to the anterior margin of the head with their 
bases very close together. The sting in he 
Myrmicinae is present but not often exerted, and 
the pupae are not enclosed in cocoons. No specific 
demarcation can be made for their habit and habitat, 
because they are found in almost all habitat except 
water. 

Key to the Genera of Myrmicinae 

1. Antennae with less than 12 joints 2 

— Antennae 12-jointed 13 

2. Antennae 11-jointed 3 

— Antennae with less than 11 joints 10 

3. Lateral margins of head and thorax 
denticulate and spiny Cataulacus 

— Lateral margins of head and thorax not 
dentate or spiny 4 

4. Pedicel attached to dorsal surface of abdomen 
Crematogaster 

— Pedicel attached to middle of front or to 
ventral surface of abdomen 5 

5. Pronotum armed with spines or teeth 

Lophomyrmex 

— Pronotum unarmed 6 



6. Antennae lacking a distinct 2- or 3- jointed 
club Atta 

— Antennae with a distinct club 7 



TIWARI : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 
7 Club of antennae formed of apical 2 joints of 

' flagellum Phddologeton 

— Club of antennae formed of apical 3 joints of 

Q 

flagellum 



8. Antennal furrows present 



.Tetramorium, pt. 



37 

beneath Tetramorium, pt. 

18. Metanotum armed with 2 short spines 

— Metanotum unarmed or at most bidentate .. 
Messor 

]9. Genus Aphaenogaster Mayr 



_ No antennal furrows 9 ,853. Aphaenosaster Mayr, Verh. zool.-bot. Ver. Wien, 3 : 

9. Clypeus bicarinate Myrmecina 



107. 



Clypeus not bicarinate, occasionally with one j^^j^ 
Xyphomyrmex 



Type-species 



A. sardous Mayr, 1853, from Sardinia, 



carma 

10. Antennae 10-jointed Solenopsis 

-— Antennae with less than 10 joints H 

1 1 . Antennae 9-jointed; club of flagellum defined 

Meranoplus 

— Antennae with less than 9 joints; club of 
flagellum well-defined •• '^ 



*68. Aphaenogaster rothneyi Forel 

1902. Stenamma {Aphaenogaster) rothneyi Forel, Rev. Suisse 
ZooL, 10 : 224, $. 

1903. Aphaenogaster rothneyi. Bingham, Fauna Brit. India. 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 273, $. 

1921 . Aphaenogaster (Attomyrma) rothneyi. Emery, Genera 
Insect., 174 A : 59. 

19 Antennae 7-iointed Myrmicarla 1951. Aphaenogaster (Attomyrma) rothneyi. Chapman and 

' ^- ■' Capco, Monogr Ins. Sci. Tech.. ManUa (Check List 

_ Antennae 6-jointed Srrumigenys ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ . ,3^ 

13. Erect hair on body trifid Triglyphothrix j^^tg^al examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 

.^., . , 14 Nadu • Kanyakumari, several workers, 27.ii.1969, 
^ Erect hatrs on body not trtftd, simple 14 Nachi^ ^ Y^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^ ^ ^^^^^^ 



14. Flagellum of antennae scarcely thickened 
towards apex, without distinct club 18 

_ Flacrellum of antennae with distinct club .... 
15 

15. Clypeus bicarinate Monomorium 

— Clvpeus not bicarinate, occasionally with one 

^ 16 

carma 

16. Neuters or workers strongly dimorphous .... 

Pheidole 

— Neuters or workers monomorphous 17 

17. 1 st joint of pedicel with an appendix beneath 

Acidomyrmex 



Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Sikkim, 
Uttar pradesh, Madhya Pradesh. West Bengal. 

Remarks : This species is recorded here for the 
first time from Tamil Nadu, Southern India. 

69. Aphaenogaster beccarii (Emery) 

1887. Ischnomyrmex beccarii Emery, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor 

Nat. Genova. 25 : 456, §, d". 
1903. Aphaenoga.'iter beccarii. Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 

Hymenoptera. 2 : 271, §, 9, C?. 

1951. Aphaenogaster (Deromyrma) beccarii. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr Inst. Sci. Tech.. Manila (Checlc List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 133. 



1st joint of pedicel without any appendix Material examined : Nil. 



38 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka, Maharashtra. 
Elsewhere : Indonesia (Sumatra). 

Remarks : The material of this species eould not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) recorded this species from Western India, 
Bombay; Kanara; Sumatra. 

20. Genus Messor Forel 

1890. Messor Forel, Ann. Soe- Ent, Belg,, M ; 68. 

Type-species : Formica barbara Linnaeus, 1767, from 
South Europe. 

70. Messor barbarus (Linnaeus) 

1767, Formica barbara Linn., Syst. Nat. 12th ed., 1 : 962. 
1858. Atta instabilis Smith, Cat. Hym. Brit Mus., 6 : 163, 

1 886. Aphaenogaster barbara var. punctata Forel, J. Asiatic 
Soc. Beng., 55 ; 284, ^. 

1903. Messor barbarus, Bingham, Fauna Brit India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 278, $ maj., 5 min., $, d". 

1951. Messor barbarus, Capman and Capco, Monogr. Inst 
Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 136. 

1 994. Messor barlmrus, Tiwari et ai. State Fauna Series 3 
: Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 259. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala, West Bengal, and 
North-West Himalayas. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. However, Bingham (1903) 
recorded this species from the North-West 
Himalayas, and from Cochin. 

21. Genus Pheidole Westwood 
1841. Pheidole Westwood, Ann, Mag. Nat Hist, 6 : 87. 
Type-species : Atta providens Sykes, 1835, from India. 

Subgenus Pheidole s. str. 

1841. Pheidole Westwood, Ann. Mag. Nat Hist, 6 : 87. 

1921. Pheidole, Subgen. Pheidole, Emery, Genera Insect, 
174 A : 92. 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 

Key to the Species of Pheidole {Pheidole) 

1. 1st joint of pedicel with no projection or 
appendix beneath phipsoni 

— 1st joint of pedicel with a projection or 
appendix beneath 2 

2. Metanotal spines clavate and obtuse towards 
apex like the halteres or poisers of a dipteron 
spathifera 

— Metanotal spines more or less acute at apex, 
not clavate 3 

3. Upper margin of node on 1 st joint of pedicel 
emarginate; appendix beneath with a spine 
anteriorly ....malinsi 

— Upper margin of node on 1 st joint of pedicel 
entire, not emarginate; appendix beneath 
without any spine ....sharpi 

*71. Pheidole (Pheidole) malinsi Forel 

1902. Pheidole malinsi Forel, Rev. Suisse ZooL, 10 : 167 & 
187, a|, 2. 

1903. Phidole malinsi, Bingham, Fauna Brit India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 231, 2|, 5?. 

1921. Pheidole (Pheidole) malinsi, Emery, Genera Insect, 
174 A : 92. 

1951. Pheidole (Pheidole) malinsi. Chapman and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia), 1 : 145. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu ; Yercaud, near Municipal Garden, 6 workers, 
12.ii.l969, coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Sikkim. 
Elsewhere : Sri Lanka. 

Remarks : This is the first record of this species 
from Tamil Nadu, Southern India. 

72. Pheidole (Pheidole) phipsoni Forel 

1902. Pheidole phipsoni Forel, Rev. Suisse Zool, 10 : 171 
& 190, 2|, 5?. 

1903. Phidole phipsoni, Bingham, Faurui Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 238, 2|, ^. 



TlWARl : Taxonofflic Studies 



b 



Soutliern Iiictia 



1 921 . Pheidole (Pheidole) phipsoni, Emery, Genera Insect., 
174 A ; 93. 

1951 . Pheidole (Pheidole) phipsoni. Chapman and Capco. 

Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 

Asia), 1 ; 147. 
Material examined : SOUTH INDIA; Tamil Nadu 
: Lower Camp, Suranganar Reserve Forest, 18 
workers, 23.ii.1969, coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. 
N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kamataka 
and Western India. 

Remarks : Bingham (1903) also recorded this 
species from Kanara and Western India. 

73. Pheidole (Pheidole) spathifera Forel 

1902. Pheidole spathifera Forel, Rev. Siusse ZooL, 10 : 168 
& 187, a|, $, 9, C?. 

1903. Phidole spathifera, Binghma, Fauna Brit. India. 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 232, Q|, 5, 9, ^■ 

1 92 1 . Pheidole (Pheidole) .spathifera, Emery, Genera Insect., 

174 A : 94. 
1 95 1 . Pheidole (Pheidole) spathifera. Chapman and Capco, 

Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech.. Manila (Check List Ants 

Asia), 1 : 150. 
1994. Pheidole (Pheidole) spathifera, tiwari et al. State 

Fauna Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 265. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Coimbatore, 4 workers, 15.ii.l969, coll. O. 
B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari; Andhra Pradesh : 
Chingleput, 7 workers, 19.iv.l962, coll. J. N. 
Maligi. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Andhra 
Pradesh, Kerala, Western India (the Nilgiris), 
Assam, West Bengal. Elsewhere : Sri Lanka, 
Burma. 

Remarks : Bingham (1903) also reported this 
species and mentioned its localities as 
"Barrackpore; Western India, the Nilgiris to 
Cochin; Ceylon; Assam; Burma, Pegu Yoma". 
Prior to this, Forel (1902) recognised the variety 
aspatha from Cochin, Assam and Burma having 



39 



the metanotal spines obluse but not clavate, and 
the 2nd node of the pedicel 3 times as broad as 
long and the variety yerbwyi from Sri Lanka 

having the head strongly medially impressed and 

the 1st node of the pedicel very slightly emarginate 
above. 

74. Pheidole (Pheidole) sharpi Forel 

1902- Pheidole sharpi Forel, Rev. Suisse ZooL, 10 : 169 & 
188, 2|, §. 

1903. Phidole sharpi, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India. 

Hymenoptera, 2 : 234, 2|, §. 
1921. Pheidole (Pheidole) sharpi, Emtry, Genera Insect., 

174 A : 94. 
1951. Pheidole (Pheidole) sharpi. Chapman and Capco, 

Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 

Asia), 1 : 150. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Yercaud Hill Top, 4 workers, 12.ii.l969, 
ex. under stone, coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. N. 
Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Southern 
India and Western India. Elsewhere : Burma. 

Remarks : Bingham (1903) also recorded this 
species and mentioned its localities as "Western 
and Southern India". 

75. Pheidole (Pheidole) hoogwerfi Forel 

1902. Pheidole sharpi race hoogwerfi Forel, Rev. Suisse 
ZooL, 10 : 170 & 189, 2|, ^. 

1903. Phidole hoogwerfi, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 235, 2|, $. 

1 95 1 . Pheidole (Pheidole) sliarpi subsp. hoogwerfi. Chapman 
and Capco, Monogr. Inst. ScL Tech.. Manila (Check 
List Ants Asia), 1 : 150. 



Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kamataka, Maharashtra. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. Bingham (1903), 
however, reported hoogwerfi Forel as a species 



40 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 



under the genus Phidole and mentioned its 
localities as "Bombay and Mysore". 

76. Pheidole (Pheidole) constanciae Forel 

1902. Pheidole constanciae Forel, Rev. Suisse ZooL, 10 : 
176 & !94, 2|, ?, 9. 

1903. Phidole constanciae, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 248, 2|, ?, 9. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Southern and Western 
India (Nilgiris). 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) recorded this species so far only from the 
Nilgiris. He {op. cit.) also noted "Specimens, also 
from the Nilgiris, vary much darker, almost black, 
have been separated as var. nigra by Dr. Forel". 

77. Pheidole (Pheidole) fergusoni Forel 

1902. Pheidole fergusoni Forel, Rev. Suisse ZooL, 10 : 169 
& 188. 

1903. Phidole fergusoni, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 234, 2|, ?. 

1951. Pheidole (Pheidole) fergusoni, Chapman and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia), 1 ; 14!. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. Bingham (1903),. however, 
recorded this species so far onty from Travancore. 

78. Pheidole (Pheidole) mus Forel 

1902. Pheidole mus Forel, Rev. Suisse ZooL, 10 : 173 & 
191, 2|, §, C?. 

1903. Phidole mus, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 242, 2|, 5, cf. 

1 95 1 . Pheidole (Pheidole) mus. Chapman and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. ScL Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia), 1 : 146. 



1994. Pheidole (Pheidole) mus, Tiwari era/., State Fauna 
Series 3 : Fauna of We.it Bengal. Part 8 ; 264. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kamataka, West Bengal. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. Bingham (1903) reported 
this species and cited its distribution as "Calcutta 
and Kanara". 

79. Pheidole (pheidole) minor (Jerdon) 

1851 . Ocodoma minor Jerdon, Madras .1. Lit. ScL, 17 : 110, 

5.9. 

195L Pheidole (Pheidole) minor. Chapman and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. ScL Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia). 1 : 145. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Jerdon (1851) 
first described this species under the genus 
ocodoma which was found under a stone in his 
garden at Tellicherry, Kerala. Subsequently, 
Champan and capco (1951) also recorded this 
species under the genus Pheidole {Pheidole ) and 
mentioned its locality only from "South India". 

80. Pheidole {Pheidole) roberti Forel 

1902. Pheidole roberti ¥ok\. Rev. Suisse ZooL, 10: 182 
& !98, 2|, ?, 

1903. Phidole roberti, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 259, 2|, ^. 

] 95 1 . Pheidole (Pheidole ) roberti , Chapman arid Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. ScL Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia). 1 : 149. 

1994. Pheidole (Pheidole) robertL Tiwari et al.. State 
Fauna Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 ; 264. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kamataka, West Bengal, 
Sikkim. 



TIWARl : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. Bingham (1903) reported 

this species and mentioned iti, di.^tribullon aS 
"Sikkim, Kanara". 

8 1 . Pheidole (Pheidole) providens (Sykes) 
1835. Atta providens Sykes. Trans. Ent. Soc, 1 ; 103. $. 

1851. Ocodoma providens?. Jerdon, Madras J. Lit Sci., 
17 : 108, 5. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Southern India. 

Remarks : Atta providens Sykes, 1835, reported 
as type-species of pheidole from India (Bingham. 
1903 : 220), has not yet been included to the 
'Fauna of British India.'. However, Jerdon (1851) 
treated this species as Ocodoma providens (Sykes) 
with some doubt, but on careful analysis it is 
found that the species ought to have been treated 
as Atta providens which he {op. cit.) misplaced 
under Ocodoma. This species has been included 
separately in this paper under the genus Pheidole 
{Pheidole). The distribution of this species as 
shown by Jerdon (1851) happens to be "Southern 
India". 

82. Pheidole {Pheildole) malabarica (Jerdon) 
1851. Ocodoma malabarica Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci, 17 

; 107. 

1951. Pheidole (Pheidole) mcdabarica. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech. Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia). 1 : 145. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Southern India. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. However, Jerdon (1851) 
described this species under the genus Ocodoma 
from Southern India. 

83. Pheidole {Pheidole) diffusa (Jerdon) 

1851. Ocodoma diffusa Jerdon, Madras .1. Lii. Sci.. 17 : 
109. 



41 

1951. Pheidole (Pheidole ) diffusa, Chapman and Capco, 
Monogr. hist. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 

Asiaj. 1 i MO, 



Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Southern India. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. Jerdon (1851) first 
described this species under the genus Ocodoma 
from Southern India. 

22. Genus Myrmica Latreille 

1804. Myrmica Latr., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., 24 : 179. 
Type-species : M. rubra Latr., 1804, from Europe. 

84. Myrmica caeca Jerdon 

1851. Myrmica ? caeca Jerdon, Ocodoma?, Madras ./. Lit. 
Sci., 17 : 116. *?. 

1951 . Myrmica caeca. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. hist. 
Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 125. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Southern India. 

Remarks : Jerdon (1851) described this species 
under the genus Myrmica with question mark and 
doubed that it may fall under Ocodoma. He {op. 
cit.) reported this species from Southern India. 
However, Bingham (1903) and Chapman and 
Capco (1951) placed this species under the genus 
Myrmica. 

23. Genus Myrmicaria Saunders 

1841. Myrmicaria Saunders, Trans. Ent. Soc, 3 ; 57, C?. 
Type-species : Myrmicaria brunnea Saunders, 1841, from 
India. 

85. Myrmicaria brunnea Saunders 

1 841 . Myrmicaria brunnea Saunders, Trans. Ent. ScJc. Lorul, 
3 ; 57, Cf. 

1851. Myrmica fodicus Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci., 17 : 
115,$. 



42 



1903. Myrmicaria brunivea, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India. 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 1 18, 5^, 9, cf. 

1922. Myrmicaria brunnea, Emery, Genera Insect., 
174 B : 122, 

1941. Myrmicaria brunnea, Donisthorpe, Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., (11) 8 (45) : 454. 

1951 . Myrmicaria brunnea. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 
Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 
124. 

1994. Myrmicaria brunnea, Tiwari et al, State Fauna 
Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal. Part 8 : 26 1 . 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Top-Slip, 13 workers, 18.ii.l969, coll. O. 
B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

distribution: INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kerala, West 
Bengal, and throughout India except the drier and 
more desert parts of the country. Elsewhere : 
Burma, Sri Lanka, Indonesia (Sumatra). 

Remarks : Donisthorpe (1941) reported this species 
from Nadungayam (Kerala). Prior to this, Jerdon 
(1851) described Myrmica fodicus, the junior 
synonym of this species, from Malabar. Bingham 
(1903) mentioned its distribution as "Throughout 
our limits, avoiding the drier and more desert parts 
of the country". 

24. Genus Crematogaster Lund 

1831. Cremastogaster Lund, Ann. Sci. Nat., 23 : !32. 

Type-species : Formica scutellaris Oliv., 1791, from 
Europe and North Africa. 

Key to the Species of Crematogaster 

1. Head smooth and shining, at most with a 
few half-obsolete striae anteriorly 2 

— Head not smooth, entirely sculptured 3 

2. Pilosity yellowish, abundant, fine and long; 
the scape of antennae reaching upto the top 
of the head; the club of flagellum formed of 
the apical 4 joints wroughtoni 

— Pilosity almost entirely wanting, represented 
by a few scattered whitish hairs; the scape 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 

of antennae reaching a little beyond the top 
of the head; the club of flagellum formed of 
the last 3 joints subnuda 

3. Metanotal spines shorter than metanotum... 
4 

— Metanotal spines distinctly longer than 
metanotum 5 

4. Metanotal spines slender, apex directed 
backwards, outwards and slighdy downwards 

dohrni 

— Metanotal spines very thick at base, apex 
directed backwards and inwards 

rothneyi 

5. Pilosity pale, sparse and very short; head 
from the front nearly square; mandibles 
rugulose ; clypeus slightly convex, the 
anterior margin of the medial portion slightly 
squarely produced; the scape of antennae 
reaching upto the top of the head; pronotum 
reticulate; pro-mesonotal suture distinct; 
abdomen somewhat elongate rogenhoferi 

— Pilosity almost entirely wanting; head a little 
broader than long; mandibles stout, smooth; 
clypeus very convex, the anterior margin 
tranverse and bent inwards; the scape of 
antennae barely reaching the top of the head; 
pronotum longitudinally striate; pro- 
mesonotal suture indicated, but not distinct; 
abdomen very cordate, short and broad 

.flave 

*86. Crematogaster wroughtoni Forel 

1902. Cremastogaster wroughtoni Forel. Rev. Suisse ZooL, 
10 : 206, $, 9. 

1903. Cremastogaster wroughtoni, Bingham, Fauna Brit. 
India. Hymenoptera, 2 : 128, ^, 9- 

1922. Crematogaster (Paracretna) wroughtoni, Emery, 
Genera Insect., 174 B : 156. 

1951. Crematogaster (Paracrema) wroughtoni. Chapman 
and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech. Manila (Check 
List Ants Asia), 1 : 102, 



TIWARl : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 



43 



1994. Crematogaster wroughtoni, Tiwari et at., State 
Fauna Series 3 ; Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 257. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Top-Slip, Shola Forest, several workers, 
18.ii.l969, coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari; 
Yercaud, Evergreen Forest and Sariyasirtialai 
Reserve Forest, several workers, 12.ii.l969, coll. 
O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

DistribiltibH: fNDIA: Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, 
West Bengal. 

Remarks : This is the first record of this sp'ecies 
from Southern India (Tamil Nadu). 

87. Crematogaster dohmi Mayr 

li?78. Ci-eiiiastdgaliM- dolirni Mayr, Veiii. z.ooL-bot. Gesl 
WIen. 28 : 68l & 682, «j. 

1903; Cremastogaster dohrnl, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
MyMenOptera; i : 139, $- 

1922. Cremai'ogMei- [Acm0eila) dulwil, Emery, Genera 
Insect.. 174 B : 150. 

1951. Crematogaster (Acrocoelia) dohrni, Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech. Manila (Check List 
Aflts Asia); 1 : 89, 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Top-Slip, 18 winged forms and several 
workers, 18.11.1969, coll. O. B. Chhotani and 
R.N. Tiwari; Lower camp, Suranganar Reserve 
Forest, 7 Workers, 23.ii. 1969, coll. O. B. Chhotani 
and R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Elsewhere : 
Burma, Sri Lanka. 

Remarks : This species was recorded for the first 
time from India (Tamil Nadu, Southern India) by 
Negi et al. (1930). 

88. Crematogaster rogenhoferi Mayr 

1878. Cremastogaster rogenhoferi Mayr, Verh. zool.-bot. 
Ges. Wien, 28 : 681 & 683, 2. 

1903. Cremastogaster rogenhoferi, Bingham, Fauna Brit. 
India, Hymenoptera, 2 : 141, ?. 



1922. Crematogaster [Acrocoelia] dohrni rogenhoferi, 
Emery, Genera Insect, 174 B : 150. 

1951. Crematogaster {Acrocoelia) dohrni rogenhoferi. 
Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila 
(Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 90 

1970. Crematogaster rogenhoferi, Collingwood, Khumbu 
HimaL, 2 (3) ; 385, 

1994. Crematogaster dohrni rogenhoferi, Tiwari et al.. 
State Fauna Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 
8 : 256. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Lower Camp, Suranganar Reserve Forest, 
13 workers, 23.ii. 1969, coll. O. B. Chhotani and 
R. N. Tiwari; Top-Slip, 16 workers, 19.ii.l969, 
coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari; Yercaud, 7 
workers, 12.ii.l969, coll. O. B. Chhotani and R.N. 
Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kerala, 
Maharashtra, Assam, Sikkim, West Bengal. 
Elsewhere : Sri Lanka, Burma, Indonesia (Sumatra). 

Biological notes : This species has been collected 
from nests on trees. 

Remarks : Binghan (1903) reported this species 
and mentioned its distribution as "Sikkim; Calcutta; 
Western India, from Bombay to Cochin; Ceylon; 
Assam; Burma : Tenasserim". 

89. Crematogaster flava Forel 

1886. Cremastogaster flava Forel, ./. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 55 : 
248, 5. 

1903. Cremastogaster flava, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 142, §. 

1922. Crematogaster (Acrocoelia) dohrni rogenhoferi var. 
flava, Emery, Genera Insect., 174 B : 151. 

1951. Crematogaster (Acrocoelia) dohrni var. flava. 
Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila 
(Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 90. 

1970. Crematogaster flava, Collingwood, Khumbu HimaL, 

2 (3) : 385. 

1994. Crematogaster flava, Tiwari et al.. State Fauna Series 

3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 ; 256. 



44 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 



Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Top-Slip, several workers, 19.ii.l969, coll. 
O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kerala, 
Assam, Orissa, Sikkim, West Bengal. 

Remarks : Bingham (1903) also reported this 
species (only $) and mentioned its distribution as 
"Sibsagar, Assam; Sikkim; Orissa; Travancore". 

The female (9) of this species C. flava, so far 
unknown, is described here under. 

New Description of Crematogaster flava 
Forel (9) 

(Figs. 7) 

9. Head and body yellowish to brownish yellow; 
abdomen somewhat darker than head; pronotum 
with three darker longitudinal lines. Fairly densely 
hairy with short and long hairs, wings densely 
covered with short hairs. 

Head-capsule subsquarish, broader than long 
upto clypeus (length 1.37-1.47 mm., width with 
eyes 1.63-1.70 mm.); sides weakly convex; 
posterior margin incurved a little when seen in 
dorsal view; with fine striations, somewhat curved 
around antennal sockets, straight medially and 
curved outwards laterally. Eyes oval (length 0.40- 
0.47 mm., width 0.27-0.28 mm.), black-facetted, 
lying antero-laterally in middle; lower margin 
somewhat incurved medially. Ocelli small, oval; 
translucent with a black, oval spot interiorly. 
Clypeus oval, projecting behind in between 
antennae, longitudinally striate, with long hairs 
anteriorly. Mandibles thick, short, with thicker 
striations and longer hairs; masticatory margin 
with 5 teeth. Antennae with 11 segments; scape 
long, cylindrical, reaching behind upto 3/4th of 
head-length; 1st segment of flagellum long, 
cylindrical; club formed of 3 apical segments, last 
segment of club longest, little longer than the 
other two put together. 



Alitrunk narrower than head with eyes. 
Pronotum elongately suboval, smooth, convex 
above. Mesonotum transverse, narrower medially. 
Metanotum semicircular. Legs long; foretibia with 
a pectinate spur; tarsi 5-jointed. Wings transparent, 
thin, covered densely with short hairs. Pedicel 2- 
jointed; 1st joint sub triangular, roundfed at antero- 
lateral corners; 2nd joint broadly transverse, with 
a faint groove medially and a round petiole in 
front, either as wide as or slightly narrower than 
1st joint. 

Abdomen oval, large and massive; tip pointed, 
sting exerted. 

Measurements (in \xm) : 

Total body length (excluding 

antennae and wings) : 8.00-9.00 

Median length of head 

(including clypeus) : 1.37-1.47 

Max. width of head with eyes : 1.63-1.70 

Length of scape of antennae : 0.97- 1 .00 

Length of eye : 0.40-0.47 

Width of eye : 0.27-0.28 

Max. width of alitrunk : 1.37-1.47 

Length of forewing : 8.00-8.60 

Length of hind wing : 5.00-5.60 

Max. width of 1st joint pedicel : 0.63-0.70 

Max. width of 2nd joint pedicel : 0.63-0.67 

Head width index 

(length X 100/max. width) : 82.04-88.02 

Scape-head length index 

(scape length x 100/head length) : 68.03-70.80 

Scape-head width index 

(scape length x 100/head width) : 58.05-61.35 

Pedicel index (width of 1st 

joint X 100 / width of 2nd joint) : 1 .00-1 .06 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Top-Slip, 12 females, 19.ii.l969, coll. O. 



TIWARI : Taxonotnic Studies on Ants of Southern India 



45 




Fig. 1-Crematogaster flava Forel (Dorsal view; Female) 



Ai-e!ZS\/Ca\.l9Q 



46 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 



B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari; Yercaud, 5 females, 
12.ii.l969, coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu. 

*90. Crematogaster rothneyi Mayr 

1878. Cremastogaster rothneyi Mayr, Verli. :<)ol.-hoi. d's. 
Wien, 28 : 681 & 685, §. 

1903. Cremastogaster rothneyi, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2: 140, $. , 

1922. Crematogaster (Acrocoelia) rothneyi, Emery. Genera 
Insect.. 174 B : 151. 

1951. Crematogaster (Acrocoelia) rothneyi. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 93. 

1994. Crematogaster rothneyi, Tiwari et ai. State Fauna 
Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal. Part 8 : 256. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Salem, several workers, 24.ii.1969, coll. 
O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari; Yercaud, several 
workers, 12.ii. 1969, coll. O.B. Chhotani and R. 
N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, 
Maharashtra, Sikkim, West Bengal. 

Biological notes : At Yercaud (Tamil Nadu), this 
species was found making a carton nest on the 
trunk of a large tree of an unknown species. The 
nest was about 4 metres above the ground, flat 
below and convex above. The nest resembles that 
of the Nasutitermes sp. (Isoptera). 

*91. Crematogaster subnuda Mayr 

1878. Cremastogaster suhnuda Mayr, Verh. zool.-hot. Ges. 
Wien. 28 : 680 & 682, ?. 

1903. Cremastogaster subnuda, Brnghscm, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 129, §. 

1 95 1 . Crematogaster (Acrocoelia) brunnea subsp. subnuda. 
Chapman and Capco, Monogr Inst. Sci. Tech., Mcmila 
(Check List Ants Asia), 1 ::S8,ai:'i . ,■:.:. :. • .'; . 



1994. Crematogaster subnuda, Tiwari et al. State Fauna 
Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 255. 

Material examined i SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nudu : Salem, 21 workers, 10-12.ii.l969, coll. O. 
B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Assam, 
West Bengal, and throughout India, except in the 
hot dry desert patts. Elsewhere : Burma, Sri Lanka. 

92. Crematogaster ransonneti Mayr 

1 868. Cremastogaster ransonneti Mayr, Verh. zooL-bot. Ges. 
Wien, 18 : 287, 5?. 

1903, Crettumtigmm mmometl, Bingham, Fauna Brit. 
India, Hymenoptera, 2 : 137, ^. 

1951. Crematogaster (Acrocoelia) ransonneti. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 93. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka, Sikkim. 
Elsewhere : Sri Lanka. 

Remarks t The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) reported this species and mentioned its 
localities as "Sikkim; Kanara; Ceylon". 

93. Crematogaster diffusa (Jerdon) 

1851. Myrmica diffusa Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci., 17 : 113, 
§, 9. CT. 

1903. Myrmica (Cremastogaster) diffusa, Bingham, Fauna 
Brit. India, Hymenoptera, 2 : 146. 

1951. Crematogaster (Acrocoelia) diffusa. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 89. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala (Malabar) and 
mostly throughout India. 

Remarks : Bingham (1903 : 136) wrongly 
'syridnymised this species under Cremastogaster 



TIWARI : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 

aberrans Forel, 1892. At the same time, he {op. 
cit.) placed this species under the genus Myrmica 
{Cremastogaster). Subsequently, Chapman and 
Capco (i951) also treated it as a separate species 
under Crematogaster (Acrocoeiia). Prior to this, 
Jerdon (1851) described this species under the 
genus Myrmica from Malabar, Kerala. He (op. 
cit.) also mentioned, "This is a well known and 
widely diffused species, being found throughout 
India. It makes its nest in holes in branches of 
trees". 

Jerdon (1851) further mentioned "It runs with 
its abdomen turned upwards almost over its head 
especially when excited, and feeds on honey and 
other vegetable secretions. Occasionally they appear 
to join their nest among the roots of Moss, 
Orchideae, and various Epiphytic plants. It is very 
pugnacious, and bites very severely, not appearing 
to use its sting much." 

94. Crematogaster rufa (Jerdon) 

1851 . Myrmica rufa Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci., 17 : 114,$. 

1903. Myrmica (Cremastogaster) rufa, Bingham, Fauna 
Brit. India, Hymenoptera, 2 ; 147. 

1 95 1 . Crematogaster (Acrocoeiia) rufa, Chapman and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech.. Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia), 1 : 93. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala (Malabar). 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. However, Jerdon (1851) 
described this species from Malabar (Southern 
India). Bingham (1903) made a list and placed this 
species under Myrmica (Cremastogaster). 
Subsequently, Chapman and Capco (1951) also 
reported this species and mentioned its locality as 
"S. India". 

This is very closely allied species with C. 
diffusa (Jerdon, 1 85 1) and differs from diffusa by 
having larger body size, head shorter proportionally. 



47 



thoracic spines longer and straighten 1st abdominal 
pedicel longer but less raised (Jerdon, 1851). 

95. Crematogaster brunnea var. nilgirica Forel 

1902. Cremastogaster brunnea var. nilgirica Forel, Rev. 

Suisse ZooL, 10 : 208, 5. 
1951. Crematogaster (Acrocoeiia) brunnea yar. nilgirica. 

Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila 

(Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 87. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu. 

Remarks : The material of this variety could not 
be available for this study. However, Chapman 
and Capco (1951) reported this variety nilgirica 
from Coonoor (Tamil Nadu). 

96. Crematogaster brunnea contemtayav. 
notabilis Forel 

1902. Cremastogaster brunnea contemta\w. notabilis Forel, 
Rev. Suisse ZooL. n ■ {IQi. 

1 95 1 . Crematogaster (Acrocoeiia) brunnea subsp. contemta 
var. notabilis. Chapman and Capco, Monogr.- Inst. 
Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 87. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA .Tamil Nadu and 
Maharashtra. 

Remarks : No material of this variety could be 
available for this study. Chapman and Capco 
(1951), However, reported this variety notabilis 
Forel and mentioned its distribution as Poona 
(Maharashtra) and Coonoor (Tamil Nadu). 

97. Crematogaster aberrans Forel 

1892. Cremastogaster aberrans Forel, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 

36 : 531, $. 
1903. CremastogcLster aberrans, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 

Hymenoptera, 2 : 136, 5?, 9, Cf. 

1951. Crematogaster (Oxygyne) aberrans. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 100. 



48 



Memoirs of the Zoological SurvSy of India 



Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka and 
Maharashtra. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Chapman 
and Capco (1951) reported this species from 
Western India and Kanara. Prior to this, liflgham 
(1903) also recorded this species and mentioned 
its distribution as "Western India : Thana; Kanara". 

98. Crematogaster aberrans var. inglebyi Forel 

1902. Creniastogaster aherrans var. inglehyi Poml,' Mt;S>. 
Suisse ZooL, 10 : 201, $, 

1951. Crematogaster (Oxygyne) aberrans var. inglebyi, 
Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila 
(Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 100. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. 

Remarks : The material of this Variety could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903 : 137) mentioned this variety under the 
species, C. aberrans Forel, 1892 from Travancore 
(Kerala) and noted "it differs from aberrans in 
not having the head so truncate anteriorly and the 
antennae proportionately longer; the scape 
extending beyond the top of the head". 
Subsequently, Chapman and Capco (1951) also 
recorded this variety from the same locality. 

99. Crematogaster ebenina Forel 

1902. Cremastogaster ebenina Fore], Rev. Suisse ZooL, 10 
■■ 199, ?, 9. 

1 903. Cremastogaster ebenina, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 ; 133, $, 9- 

1922. Crematogaster (Oxygyne) ebenina, Emery, Genera 
Insect., 174 B : 157. 

1951. Crematogaster (Oxygyne) ebenina. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 100. 

1994. Crematogaster ebenina, Tiwari et al., State Fauna 
Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 256. 



Material eMmlhed : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka, Maharashtra, 
Sikkim, West Bengal. Elsewhere.: Burma. 
Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available fer this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) reported this species and mentioned its 
distribution as "Western India : Thana, Poona, 
Kanara; Sikkim; Tenasserim". 

1 00. Crematogaster travancorensis Forel 

1902. Cremastogaster travancorensis Forel, Rev. Suisse 
ZooL, 10 : 200, 5. 

1903. Cremastogaster travancorensis, Bingham, Fauna Brit. 
India, Hymenoptera, 2 : 134, $. 

1951. Crematogaster (Oxygyne) travancorensis. Chapman 
atid CapcD; Monogr. Inst. ScL Tech., Manila (Check 
List Ants Asia), 1 : 101. 



Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. However, Bingham (1903) 
reported this species from Travancore. 

101. Crematogaster dalyi Forel 

1 902, Crenuistogaster dalyi Forel, Rev. Suisse ZooL, 10 : 
201. 

1903. Cremastogaster dalyL Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 :_138, 5. 

1 95 1 . Crematogaster (Oxygyne) dalyL Chapman and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. ScL Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia), 1 ; 100. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu and Western 
Ghats. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. Bingham (1903) reported 
this species from Western Ghats. But subsequently. 
Chapman and Capco (1951) recorded this species 
under the genus Crematogaster (Oxygyne) and 
mentioned its locality as "Coonoor" (Tamil Nadu), 



TIWARl : Taxonomie Studies on Ants of Southern India 



49 



\Q2. Crematogaster biroi Mayr 

1897. Cremastogaster biroi Mayr, Termesz- Fiizetek, 20 : 
428, 5. 

1903. Cremastogaster biroi, Bingham, F(iun(i Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 138, ^, 9, 

1951. Cr-ematogaster (Orthocrema) biroi. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech.. Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 96. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, 
Sikkim. Elsewhere : Sri Lanka- 
Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. However, Bingham (1903) 
reported this species and mentioned its distribution 
as "Kanara; Dehra Dun; Sikkim; Ceylon". He {op. 
cit.) further noted "This remarkable species of 
Cremastogaster is as aberrant in habits as in the 
form of the 9- It makes no nests in trees as most 
of the other species do, but lives in small 
communities under stones". 

103. Crematogaster biroi var. aitkeni Forel 

1902. Cremastogaster biroi war. aitlceni Fore], Re\. Suisse 
ZooL. 10 : 203. 

1951. Crematogaster (Orthocrema) Inroi var. aitkeni. 
Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila 
(Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 97. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kamataka. 

Remarks : The material of this variety could not 
be available for this study. However, Chapman 
and Capco (1951) mentioned its locality as "India 
: Kanara". But previously, Bingham (1903 : 139) 
also mentioned aitkeni Forel, 1902 as a variety 
under C. biroi Mayr, 1 897 from the same locality 
and noted "The specimens from Kanara separated 
as var. aitkeni Forel, are more pilose, have the 
thorax striate-reticulate, subopaque, and the 
metanotal spines divergent, not curved 
downwards". 



104. Crematogaster pradipi sp. nov. 

(Figs. 8-9) 

2. Head and body blackish brown; legs 
somewhat paler. Head and body covered with 
short hairs. Total length 3.8-4.5 mm. 

Head-capsule subsquarish, sides weakly convex; 
posterior margin substraight when viewed flat in 
dorsal view; with fine striations in anterior part ; 
striations near antennae curved around them and 
straighter elsewhere. Eyes black, oval, facetted; 
situated laterally in middle; length 0.17-0.23 mm., 
width 0.13-0.17 mm. Ocelli absent. Clypeus 
suboval, appreciably projecting behind in between 
antennal carinae; with longitudinal striations and 
anteriorly with a few long bristle-like hairs. 
Antennae with 1 1 segments; scape elongate, a 
little shorter than flagellum and not reaching upto 
hind margin of head; 1st segment of flagellum 
elongate; club 3-jointed; apical segment of club 
subequal to preceding two segments put together. 
Mandibles strong, thick and hairy; masticatory 
margin with 5 teeth. 

Alitrunk much narrower than head. Pronotum 
flat rounded at sides and ridged at upper lateral 
margin; with a few faint longitudinal striations. 
Mesonotum oval, sloping posteriorly and weakly 
depressed medially; ridged on sides; pro-mesonotal 
suture laterally clear, dorsally not marked. 
Metanotum transversely broad, with a median 
longitudinal ridge and fairly large lateral spines; 
posteriorly sloping downwards; meso-metanotal 
suture well-marked. First joint of pedicel wider 
and rounded anteriorly, narrowing posteriorly. 
Second joint of pedicel divided into two small, 
round tubercles by a longitudinal groove and with 
a small, flat, tubercle at base; apex attached to 
upper basal surface of abdominal segment. 

9. Head and body blackish brown, legs slightly 
paler; wings transparent, tridescent. Head and body 
covered with small, short hairs; mandibles and 
clypeus with a few, long bristles. Total length 
without wings 7.60-8.00 mm. 

Head-capsule as in $, but larger; striations 
more prominent, otherwise as in $. Eyes ova! 
(length 0.40-0.43 mm., width 0.27-0.33 mm.), 
black, facetted, lying laterally and antero- 
posteriorly, with lower margin sometimes faintly 



50 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 





Fig. 8-Cremcitogaster pradipi sp. nov. (Dorsal view; 
Worker) 



Fig. 9(a)-Crematogaster pradipi sp. nov. (Dorsal view ; 
Female) 





Fig. 9(b)-Fore wing and Hind wing of Crematogaster pradipi sp. nov.. Female 



TIWARI : Taxonomic Studies an Ants of Southern India 



51 



Measurememts (in Mm) ! 



Parts measured 



^ (Worker) 

Range (5 exs.) 

(Measurements in jam) 



^ (Worker) 

Holotype 

(Measurements in ^m) 



9 (Female) 

(5 exs) 

(Measurements in ^m) 



Total body length 
(excluding antennae and 
wings) 

Median length of head 
including clypeus 

Maximum width of head 

with eyes 

Length of scape of 

antenna 

Length of eye 
Width of eye 
Maximum width of 
alitrunk 

Length of fore wing 
Length of hind wing 

Maximum width of 1st 
joint of pedicel 
Maximum width of 2nd 
joint of pedicel 



3.80-4.50 

0.86-1.07 

0.90-1.13 

0.73-0.83 

0.17-0.23 
0.13-0.17 
0.53-0.63 

0.30-0.40 
0.27-0.33 



4.50 

t.07 
LI 3 
0.83 
0.23 

o:i7 

0.63 

0.40 
0.33 



7.60-8.00 

1.43-1.50 

1.47-1.50 

0.90-1.00 

0.40-0.43 
0.27-0.33 
1.23 

6 JO (1 ex.) 
5.10 (1 ex.) 
0.50-0.53 

0.50-0.53 



incurved. Ocelli small, round, translucent; median 
ocellus (0.11-0.13 mm. in diameter) slightly larger 
than lateral ones (0. 1 0-0. 1 f mm. in diameter). 
Clypeus suboval, projecting behind in between 
antennal carinae; longitudinally striates and with a 
few long bristle-like hairs at anterior margin. 
Mandibles thick, short, punctate, thickly striate 
and hairy; masticatory margin with 5 teeth. 
Antennae" with 1 L segments as in a whole larger, 
otherwise as in $. 

Alitrunk a little narrower than head; pronotum, 
mesonotum and metanotum distinctly separated. 
Pronotum elongated oval, smooth, convex above. 
Mesonotum transverse, narrower medially and 
wider laterally. Metanotum semicircular narrowed 
posteriorly. Legs elongate, fore tibia with a 
pectinate spur, tarsi 5-jointed. Wings transparent, 
thin and hairy; venation as in figure 9b. Pedicel 
2-jointed; 1st joint subtriangular, broad in front 
and narrowing posteriorly, flat above, somewhat 
depressed interiorly; 2nd joint broad, indistinctly 
divided into two by a longitudinal groove and with 
thick, round petiole anteriorly. 



Abdomen oval, large and massive; pointed at 
tip; sting not well exerted. 

Various indexes of Holotype 

[Length X 100] 1.07 x 100 

Head Index = 



Max. width of 
the head 
94.690 



1.13 



Scape - head length Index = 
0.83 X 100 



1.07 
wScapc - head width Index =■ 
0.83x100 



[Scape length x 100] 
Head length 

= 77.570: 

[Scape length x 100]- 
Head width 
= 73.451 



Pedicel Index = 



Width of 1st joint x 100 
Width of 2nd joint 



52 



Memoirs of the 2k)ological Survey of India 



0.40 X 100 



0.33 



= 121.212 



Holotype : $, INDIA : Tamil Nadu : Madras, 
Top-Slip, 24.ii.1969, coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. 
N. Tiwari; paratypes : 4 5, 7 9, locality same as 
holotype; deposited in National Zoological 
Collections, Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. 

This new species approaches close to 
Crematogaster anthracina Smith, 1857 in the 
nature of body pattern, colour of the body and 
other structural characters, but differs from the 
latter in having pronotum flat dorsally and rounded 
anteriorly; pro-mesonotal suture obsolete dorsally, 
but laterally marked; mesonotum medially 
depressed; metanotal spines thick at the base, 
convergent posteriorly and bent inwards; first joint 
of pedicel posteriorly with a raised rounded node; 
second joint of pedicel distinctly bilobed; abdomen 
subcordate. 

25. Genus Strumigenys Smith 

1860. Strumigenys Smith, Jour. Ent., 1 : 72. 

Type-species ; 5. mandlbularis Smith, 1860, from Brazil. 

105. Strumigenys godeffroyi Mayr 

1 866. Strumigenys godeffroyi Mayr, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 
53 : 516, $. 

1903. Strumigenys godeffroyi, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 149, $, 9- 

1 95 1 . Strumigenys (Strumigenys) godeffroyi. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 108. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Southern and Western 
India. Elsewhere : Malaysia, Oceania, Samao. 

Remarlis : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) mentioned its habitat as "Western and 
Southern India." He {op. cit.) further mentioned 
that the Indian form has been separated as var. 
indica Forel, 1902 and characterised by more 



pilosity, with a slightly longer abdomen, densely 
striate at the base. 

26. Genus Myrmecina Curtis 

1829. Myrmecina Curtis, Brit. Ent, 4 : 226, cf. 

Type-species : M. latreilli Curtis, 1829, from South of 
England. 

106. Myrmecina urbanii Tiwari 

1994. Myrmecina urbanii Tiwari, Rec. zool. Surv. India, 94 
(2-4) : 152. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Kerala : 
Thekkadi (2500 ft.), 2 workers, March, 1969 (Colin. 
No. 029/4). coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. 

Remarks : This species belongs to a little known 
genus Myrmecina. This genus was recorded for 
the first time from India by Tiwari (1994). 

The species urbanii Tiwari, 1994 under the 
genus Myrmecina is characterised by alitrunk 
convex above, triangular, tappering posteriorly; 
pronotum straited transversely; meso- and 
metanotum with posteriorly converging longitudinal 
striae, forming a distinct 'Y' shaped structure at 
base; pronotum arm with a small spine on each 
antero-lateral comer, spines directed downward; 
mesonotum armed with a pair of small acute 
spines, thick at base and situated at the postero- 
lateral end of the mesonotum; metanotum armed 
with a pair of long spines directed outwards and 
slightly bent upwards at tips. 

107. Myrmecina vidyae Tiwari 

1994. Myrmecina vidyae Tiwari, Rec. zool. Surv. India, 94 
(2-4) : 155. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Kerala : 
Silent Valley Expedition Camp Site, 3 workers, 
14.1.1980, coll. S. K. Bhattacharyya. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. 

Remarks : The species M. vidyae is very close 
to M. urbanii Tiwari, 1994, in having body 



TIWARI : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 53 

pattern, antennae, legs and throx characters mostly 1922. Monomorium (Xewmyrmex) salomonis subsp. indica, 

similar, but it differs from urbanii by having the Emery, Genera Insect., 174 B : 178. 

following characters : mandibular formula "1+6" ^^^ Monomorium indicum, Ettershank. Aust. J. ZooL 14 

i.e., one apical tooth and 6 small sub-apical teeth; .j, . ^^ 

absence of mesonotal spine; metanotal spines 

thinner and longer in shape; striae on meso- Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Andhra 

metanotum outwardly divergent; gaster not truncate Pradesh : Vijyapuri, Nagarjunsagar Dam, several 

anteriorly and having finner granulation all over workers, 3.viii.l962, coll. J. N. Maligi; Nandikonda 

the dorsum. Valley, several workers, 9.viii.l962, coll. J. N. 

Maligi. 
27. Genus Monomorium Mayr 

Distribution : INDIA : Andhra Pradesh, Tamil 

1855. Monomorium Mayr, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien. 5 : ^^^^^ Punjab, Maharashtra. Elsewhere : Burma. 

452. 

Remarks : Bingham (1903 : 206) also mention its 
Type-species : M. mmMfum Mayr, 1855, from Europe. . t^-i...a/.j jd u 

^'^ ^ distnbution as The Punjab to Madras, and Bombay 

Key to the Species of Monomorium to Burma". 

1. Head more or less rugulose, opaque 2 ^^.j^^ Monomorium glyciphilum (Smith) 

— Head not rugulose and opaque, but more or ,^5^ ^^^.^^ giyciphila Smith, Cat. Hym. Brit, Mus.. 6 : 
less smooth and shining 3 ^25 

2. Head in front distinctly broader than ^^^3 Monomorium glyciphaum,mnghmi. Fauna Brit. India, 

posteriorly; the nodes of pedicel, seen from Hymenoptera. 2 : 206. 5. 

above, nearly equal indicum 

1922. Monomorium (Xeromyrmex) glyciphilum. Emery, 

— Head as broad posteriorly as in front; the ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ 3 ^ ^^^ 

2nd node of pedicel broader than 1st node 

slvciphilum 1^^'- Monomorium (Xeromyrmex) glyciphilum. Chapman 
and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check 

3. 2nd node of pedicel not broader than the 1 st ^.^^ ^^^ ^^.^^^ ^ ,^^^ 

node mayri 

1966. Monomorium glyciphilum, Ettershank, Aust. J. Zool, 

— 2nd node of pedicel broader than the 1st 14 ni • 89 
node 4 

, , ,. . c o 1 -. 1 . .- 1 Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 

4. Length 1.5-2 mm.; pilosity almost entirely ,n-in/;n 1 

^ J J r J- 1 1**1 Nadu : Salem, 12 workers, 10.ii.l969, ex. soil 

wanting; 2nd node of pedicel very little „ ^ r. r^uu . ■ j r. kt -r- 

, , , , . ri ■ , surface, coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

broader than the 1st node .floncola 

— Length 3-3.7 mm.; pilosity moderate or Distribution: INDL\ : Tamil Nadu. Elsewhere : 
sparse, fine and rather long; 2nd node of S" lanka. 

pedicel very much broader than the 1st node R^^arks : This is the first record of this species 
/attnofie ^^^^ j^^^.^ ^^^^^jj ^^^^^ ^^^^^ j^^^j^^ 



108. Monomorium indicum Forel 

1902. Monomorium salomonis Linn., race indicum Forel, 
Rev. Suisse Zool., 10 : 213. 

1903. Monomorium indicum. Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 205, S, 9, Cf. 



*110. Monomorium mayri Forel 

1902. Monomorium gracillimum Smith, var. mayri Forel, 
Rev. Suisse Zool., 10 : 209. 

1922. Monomorium (Parholcomyrmex) gracillimum var. 
mayri. Emery, Genera Insect.. Y14 B : 180. 



54 



1951. Monomorium ( Parholcomyrmex) gracilliinum var. 
mayri. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., 
Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 166. 

1966. Monoworiurn mayri. Ettershank, Aust. J. ZooL. 14 
(1) : 90. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Salem, several workers, 10. ii.]969, coll. 
O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari; Coimbatore, 20 
workers, 1 5.11.1969, coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. 
N. Tiwari; Kerala : Trivandrum, 3 workers, 1969, 
coll. N. M. Antony. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kerala. 
Elsewhere : Burma. 

Biological notes : This ant has been collected 
from the tmnk of a coconut tree at Coimbatore and 
from the soil along yj'ith Crematogaster rogenhoferi 
Mayr, 1878 and Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius, 
1804) at Salem (Tamil Nadu). 

Remarks : Bingham (1903 : 211) noted "Typical 
M. gracilliinum, so far as I know, has been 
recorded within our limits only from Ceylon; but 
the form separated as var. mayri (Forel, Rev. 
Suisse Zool. x (1902), p. 209) is spread throughout 
India and Burma. It differs from true M. 
gracillimum in being dark brown with the 
mandibles, antennae and legs pale yellow; the 
basal portion of the metanotum is submargined 
and is more abaiptly truncate at apex, it is densely 
and very finely transversely striate and opaque". 

III. Monomorium floricola (Jerdon) 

1851. Attafloricola Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. ScL, 17 : 1 07, $. 

1866. Monomorium specularis M&yx, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. 
Wien, 53 : 509, ^. 

1903. Monomorium floricola, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2:211,$. 

1922. Monomorium (Monomorium) floricola, Emery, 
Genera Insect., 174 B : 1 72. 

1 95 1 . Monomorium (Monomorium) floricola. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 164. 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 

1966. Monomorium floricola, Ettershank. Aust. J. Zool, 14 
(1): 89, ' - : / 

1989. Monomorium floricola, Ogata and Bolton, Jpn. J. 
-Erttomo/., 57, (2). : 460. r 

1994.' Monomorium floricola, Tiwari er a/.. State Fauna 
Series?: ': Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 260. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA -Tamil 
Nadu : Suranganar Res. Forest, near Lower Camp, 
several workers, 23.ii.1969, ex. rose wood log, 
coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kerala, West 
Bengal. Elsewhere : Sri Lanka, Oceania. 

Biological notes : This is a common house-ant in 
India and damages all sorts of materials. 

Remarks : Jerdon (1851) first described this 
species floricola under the genus Atta from 
Tellicherry (Kerala). While describing this species, 
he also noted in the same publication that he had 
obtained this very small ant, of which he had only 
seen one kind of individual, in small numbers on 
flowers and leaves and it appeared to feed solely 
on vegetable secretions. 

*1 12. Monomorium latinode Mayr 

1872. Monomorium latinode M&yr, Ann. M us: Civ. Stor. 
Nat. Genova, 2 : 152, 5. 

1903. Monomorium latinode, Bitigham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 211, $. 

1 922. Monomorium (Monomorium) latinode, Em^ry, Genera 
Insect., 174 B : 171. 

1 95 1 . Monomorium (Monomorium) latinode. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 165. 

1966. Monomorium latinode, Ettershank, Aim. 7. ^o/., 14 
(1) : 90. 

1994. Monomorium latinode, Tiwari et ai. State Fauna 
Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 260. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Yercaud, 13 workers, 13.ii.l969, coll. O. 
B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari; Suranganar Reserve 



TIWARI : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 



55 



Forest, near Lower Camp, 8 workers, 23.ii.1969, 
coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, West Bengal 
and spread throughout India. Elsewhere : Sri Lanka, 
Burma, Indonesia (Borneo), Formosa (Taiwan). 

Biological notes : This is also a house-ant in 
India and damages all sorts of materials. It has 
been collected from soil under the withering 
seedlings of Eucalyptus sp. It's association, 
however, in the death of seedlings could not be 
confirmed. 

Remarks : Bingham (1903) reported this species 
and mentioned its distribution as "spread throughout 
India, Ceylon, and Burma, extending to Borneo". 
But Ettershank (1966) has restricted latinode to 
Borneo only. 

]\3. Monomorium dichroum Forel 

1902. Monomorium dichroum Forel, Rev. Suisse ZooL, 
10 : 212. 

1903. Monomorium dichroum, B'mgham. Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera. 1 : 202, ^, $. 

1951. Monomorium (Monomorium) dichroum. Chapman 
and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check 
List Ants Asia), 1 : 164. 

1966. Monomorium dichroi^m, Ettershaiik, Aust. J. ZooL, 
14(1): 88. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Southern India (Nilgiri 
Hills). 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) recorded this species and mentioned its 
locality as "Southern India, Nilgiri Hills". 

114. Monomorium pharaonis (Linnaeus) 

1758. Formica pharaonis, Syst. Nat ed. 10, 1 : 580. 

1838. Myrmica domestica Shuckard, Charlesworth's Mag. 
Nat. Hist., new ser., 2 : 626. 

1851. Atta minuta Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci., 17 : 105, 5, 
9. 



1 903. Monomorium pharaonis, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 202;, 2, $. 

1 95 1 . Monomorium (Monomorium) pharaonis. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 165. 

1966. Monomorium pharaonis, Ettershank, Aust. J. ZooL, 
14(1) : 91. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kamataka and throughout 
India. Elsewhere : Spread over the tropical regions 
to both hemispheres. 

Remarks : Jerdon (1851) described the species 
minuta under the genus Atta ■ from Karnataka, 
which was synonymised with M. pharaonis (Linn.) 
by Bingham (1903). Bingham (op. cit.) mentioned 
its distribution as "Throughout our limits, and 
spread over the tropical regions of both 
hemispheres". 

Jerdon (1851) further noted "this minute species 
makes a temporary nest in various situations, in 
an empty box, between the back and its leaves, 
even among the loose pages of a book, in an 
empty shell etc. Nothing is used in its construction, 
a shelter from the light merely being sought for. It 
is perhaps not very numerous in individuals, one 
wingless female is generally found in the nest. It 
appears to prefer dead animal matter to saccharine 
or vegetable products". 

1 15. Monomorium wroughtoni Forel 

J 902. Monomorium wroughtoni Forel, Rev. Suisse ZooL, 
10 : 209. 

1903. Monomorium wroughtoni, Bingham, Fauna Brit 
India, Hymenoptera, 2 : 204, $. 

1951. Monomorium (Monomorium) wroughtoni. Chapman 
and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Set Tech., Manila (Check 
List Ants Asia), 1 ; 165. 

1966. Monomorium wroughtoni, Ettexshavik, Aust. J^ ZooL, 
14(1) : 93. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kamataka, Maharashtra. 



56 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 



Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. Bingham (1903) however, 
reported this species, M. wroughtoni Forel, 1902 
and mentioned its distribution as "Western India, 
Poona, Kanara". 

116. Monomorium criniceps (Mayr) 

1878. Holcomyrmex criniceps Mayr, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. 
Wien, 28 : 672, 5. 

1 903. Holcomyrmex criniceps, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 1 : 282, ? maj., § min. 

1 95 1 . Monomorium {Holcomyrmex) criniceps. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia),l : 163. 

1966. Monomorium criniceps, Ettershank, Aust. J. ZoqL, 
14 (1) : 88. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Southern and Western 
India. Elsewhere : Sri Lanka, Burma. 

Remarks : The material of this species, M. 
criniceps (Mayr) could not be available for this 
study. While recording this speceis criniceps 
under the genus Holcomyrmex, Bingham (1903) 
mentioned its distribution only "Western India; 
Southern India; Ceylon; Burma, Pegu Yoma". 

117. Monomorium scabriceps (Mayr) 

1878. Holcomyrmex scabriceps Mayr, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. 
Wien, 28 : 672, 5. 

1903. Holycomyrmex scabriceps, Bingham, Fauna Brit. 
India, Hymenoptera, 2 : 282, ^ maj., ? min., 9, cf. 

1951. Monomorium (Holcomyrmex) scabriceps. Chapman 
and Capco, Monogr Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check 
List Ants Asia), 1 : 163. 

1966. Monomorium scabriceps, Ettershank, Aust. J. ZooL, 
14(1) : 92. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kerala, 
Punjab. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. However, Donisthorpe 



(1942c) recorded this species under the genus 
Holcomyrmex and mentioned its locality as 
"Dohnavur, Tinnelvelly Dist. (S. India). Prior to 
this, Bingham (1903) also reported this species 
under the same genus and quoted "Distributed 
irregularly throughout India from Punjab to Cochin; 
not recorded from Ceylon, Assam or Burma". 

1 1 8. Monomorium crinicipitoscabriceps (Forel) 

1902. Holcomyrmex scabriceps var. crinicipitoscabriceps 
Forel, Rev. Suisse ZooL, 10 : 220, 5. 

1951. Monomorium (Holcomyrmex) scabriceps var. 
crinicipitoscabriceps. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 
Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 
163. 

1966. Monomorium crinicipitoscabriceps, Ettershank, Aust. 
J. ZooL, 14 (1) : 88. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kamataka. Elsewhere : 
Burma. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Chapman 
and Capco (1951) recorded this species as a variety 
from Mysore and Burma. 

According to Forel (1902), this variety is the 
intermediate between H. criniceps Mayr, 1 878 and 
H. scabriceps Mayr, 1878. But later, Ettershank 
(1966) treated this variety as a species under the 
genus Monomorium. 

119. Monomorium nigrum (Forel) 

1902. Holcomyrmex criniceps var. nigra Forel, Rev. Siusse 
ZooL, 10 : 220. 

1951. Monomorium (Holcomyrmex) criniceps var. nigra. 
Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. ScL Tech., Manila 
(Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 163. 

1966. Monomorium nigrum, Ettershank, Aust. J. ZooL, 14 
(1):91. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kamataka, Maharashtra. 



TIWARI : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern Itidia 



57 



Remarks : The material of this species could not 

be available for this study. However, Chapman 

and Capco (1951) mentioned its distribution as 
"India : Kanara and Poona". 

120. Monomorium glabrufn (Andri) 

1883. Holcomyrmex glaber Andre, Spec. Hym. Europe, 
2 : 345, 5- 

1903. Holcomyrmex glaber, Bingham, Fauna Brit India, 
Hymenoptera. 2 : 284, $ maj., 5 min. 

1 95 1 . Monomorium (holcomyrmex) glabmni, Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila ( Check List 
Ants Asia). 1 : 163. 

1966. Monomorium glabrum, Ettershank, Aust. J. ZooL, 14 
(1) : 89. 

Material exantlMd S NIL 

Distribution : INDIA : Taitiil NadU, Southern and 
Western India. Elsewhere : Sri Lanka and Burma. 

Remarks ; No material of this species could be 
available for this study. However, Bingham (1903) 
mentioned its distribution as "Western and 
Southern India, Ceylon, and Burma". Subsequently, 
Donisthorpe (1942c) also recorded this species 
from Dohnavur (550 ft.), Tinnelvelly Dist. Tamil 
Nadu (South India). 

121. Monorium glabrocfinkeps (Forel) 

1902. Holcomyrmex glaber var. glabro-criniceps Forel, 
Rev. Suisse ZooL, 10 : 220, $. 

1951. Monomorium (holcomyrmex) glabrum var. glabro- 
criniceps. Chapman and Capco, Mongr. Inst. Sci. 
Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 163. 

1966. Monomorium glabrocriniceps, Ettershank, Aust. J. 
ZooL. 14 (1) : 89. 



Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA 
Maharashtra. 



Karnataka and 



Remarks : No specimens of this species could be 
available for this study. However, Chapman and 
Capco (1951) mentioned its locahties as "India : 
Kanara and Bombay". 



122. Monomorium destructor (Jerdon) 

1851, Am destructor MmMadras J. Lit. Sci, 17:105, 

1857. Myrmica vastator Smith, / Proc. Linn. Soc, 2 ; 71, 

?. 
1865. Monomorium basale Mayr, Novara Reise, Formicid. : 

92. 

1903. Monomorium destructor, Bingham, Fauna Brit. 
India, Hymenoptera, 2 : 209, §, 9. cT. 

1951 . Monomorium (Parholcomyrmex) destructor. Chapman 
and Capco, Monogr. Inst. ScL, Tech., Manila (Check 
List Ailts Asia), 1 : 166. 

1966. Monomorium destructor, Ettershank, Aust. J. ZooL. 
14 (1) : 88. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Southern India and mostly 
throughout India. Elsewhere : Spread through the 
torrid regions of both hemispheres. 

Biological notes : They live in holes in the ground, 
or in walls, etc., and are very numerous in 
individuals. They prefer animal to vegetable 
substances, destroying dead insects, bird skins 
etc., but also feed greedily on sugar (Jerdon, 1851). 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this sutdy. However, Jerdon (1851) 
described this species under the genus Atta from 
Southern India and further mentioned its 
distribution as "They are common in all parts of 
India, and often prove very troublesome and 
destructive to the Naturalist". Later, while reporting 
this species under the genus Monomorium, 
Bingham (1903) noted its distribution as 
"Throughout our limits, and spread (probably 
carried and introduced by shipping) through the 
torrid regions of both hemispheres". 

123. Monomorium schurri Forel 

1902. Monomorium schurri Forel, Rev. Suisse ZooL, 10 : 
212. 

1903. Monomorium schurn, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 203, 5, 9. 



58 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 



1951 . Monomorium ( Xeromyrmex) schurri, Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila. (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 166. 

1966. Monomorium schurri, Ettershank, Aust. J. ZooL, 14 
(1):92. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu and Kerala 
(Nilgiri Hills). 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. Bingham (1903), 
however, recorded this species from the Nilgiri 
Hills, Southern India. 

124. Monomorium minutum Mayr 

1855. Monomorium minutum Mayr, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. 
men. 5 : 453, ^. 

1858. Myrmica (Monomorium) carbonaria Smith, Cat. Hym. 
Brit. Mus., 6 : 127. 

1903. Monomorium minutum, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 210, §. 

1966. Monomorium minutum, Ettershank, Aust. K. ZooL, 
14 (1) : 90. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. Elsewhere : 
Southern Europe, Africa and North America. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. However, Bingham (1903) 
recorded this species from Travancore (Southern 
India) and also found in Southern Europe, Africa 
and North America. 

2%. Gcnn?, Oligomyrmex Mayr 

1867. Oligomyrmex Mayr, Tijds. v. Ent., 10 : 110, 9- 
Type-species : O. concinnus Mayr, 1867, from Australia. 

\25. Oligomyrmex leei Forel 

1902. Oligomyrmex leei Forel, Rev. Suisse Zool., 10 : 216. 

1903; OligoWiyrrriex ieel, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2-: 155, 9- 



1966. Oligomyrmex leei, Ettershank, Au^r. J. ZooL, 14 (1) : 
123. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kamataka. 

Remarks : No specimens of this species could be 
available for this study. However, Bingham (1903) 
recorded this species from Mysore (South India). 

126. Oligomyrmex lamellifrons (Forel) 

1902. Phidologiton lamellifrons Forel, Rev. Suisse ZooL, 10 
: 219, 9. 

1903. Phidologiton lamellifrons, Bingham, Fauna Brit. 
India, Hymenoptera, 2 : 1 66, 9- 

1951. Aneleus (Lecanomyrma) lamellifrons. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. ScL Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 155. 

1966. Oligomyrmex lamellifrons, Ettershank, Aust. J. ZooL, 
14(1) : 123. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kamataka. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) recorded this species under the genus 
Phidologiton so far from Belgaum (South India). 
Subsequently, Chapman and Capco (1951) also 
mentioned its locality as "Belgaum" in their 
monograph. Ettershank (1966) synonymised and 
placed the species under the genus Oligomyrmex. 

29. Genus Solenopsis Westwood 

1841. Solenopsis Westwood, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 6 : 86. 

Type-species : S. mandibularis y^estwood, 1841, from 
America. 

127. Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) 

1804. Atta geminata Fabricius, Syst. Piez. : 423. 

1851. Atta rufa Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci., 17 : 106, 2|, 5, 

1903: Solenopsis geminata, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : \5S,!^,^, 9, (3^. 



TIWARI : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 



59 



1903. Solenopsis geminata var. rufa, Bingham, Fauna Brit. 
India, Hymenoptera, 2:159. 

1951. Solenopsis geminata subsp. ru/a, Chapniah and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. Sci. tech., Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia), 1 : 168. ' 

1966. So/e«o/w'i gemwata, Ettershank, Aust. J. Zooi, . 
14.(1): 141, 

1994. Solenopsis geminata, Tiwari ^t ai, State Fauna 
Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal Part 8 : 267. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Several workers, Salem, 10,11.1969, 
Yercaud, 12.11.1969, Tudiyalur, 16.11.1969, 
Perlyakulam, 22.11.1969, Mylar Kulasekrum Forest 
Reserve, 23.11.1969, coll. O. B, Chhotani and R. 
N. Tiwari; Madras, several workers, 8.vi. 1961, 
coll. P. P. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kerala, 
Kamataka, West fiengdl. Elsewhere : Spread pretty 
nearly over the tropics of the two hemispheres, 

Biological notes : While describing the species 
Atta rufa, Jerdon (1851) noted "It is found in holes 
under gfotind, fflud walls and often appears in 
houses, coming through a hole or crevice in the 
floor or wall. Its favourite food is dead insects 
and other matter. It stings very severely, leaving a 
burning pain that lasts for several minutes". 

According to Beeson (1941) S. geminata, 
commonly known as 'Brown Fire Ant', has a 
severe sting. It makes its nest in soil and is 
reported to be injurious to seedlings buds and 
leaves. It is reported to be an important enemy of 
aphids, soft scales, termites, bed bugs and moth 
larvae and can be introduced in the control of 
termites and cafterpUlars of Eublemma amabilia 
and Holococerd pulverea in the lac gddowns. 

In Southern India,' this ant has been collected 
from coconut and bananaplants and also from soil 
and under stones. 

fteiiiari^"; Jerdon "(r 8^1 j 'described the species 
nifa urider iRt7w^™^"^^ia''^^^ Mlilab%r''aiid 
Karnatkka;'' ^mgham' (15103) "liidtitiofted'^hB- 



distribution of 5. geminata (Fabr., 1804) as 
"Throughout out limits, and spread pretty nearly 
over the tropics of the two hemispheres". Further 
he {op. cit.) noted "var. rufa Jerdon is a darker 
reddish yellow". Subsequently, Chapman and 
Capcd (1951) also recorded the rufa as a 
subspecies from Malabar. But Ettershank (1966) 
synonymised the species Atta rufa Jerdon, 1851 
and placed it under the species Solenopsis geminata 
(Fabricius, 1804). 

30. Genus Lophomyrmex Emery 

1 892. Lophomyrmex Emery, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 
Genova, 22 : 114. 

Type-species : Ocodoma quadrispinosus Jerdon, 1851, 
from Malabar. 

128. Lophomyrmex quadrispinosus (Jerdon) 

1851. Ocodoma quadrispinosa Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. ScL, 

17 : 111, 5. 
1903. Lophomyrmex quadrispinosus, B'mgham, Fauna Brit. 

India, Hymenoptera, 2 : 195, ^. 

1922. Lophomyrmex quadrispinosus, ^mtry. Genera Insect., 
174 C : 209. 

1966. Lophomyrmex quadrispinosus, Ettershank, Aust. J. 
ZooL, 14 (1) : 134. 

1994. Lophomyrmex quadrispinosus, Tiwari et ai. State 
Fauna Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 257. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Salem, Kurambapatty Reserve Forest, 7 
workers, ll.ii.1969, coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. 
N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kerala, 
Kamataka, Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim, Orissa, West 
Bengal. Elsewhere : Sri Lanka. 

Biological notes : Jerdon (1851) noted that it 
appeared to be feeding on the vegetable secretions 
surrounding the seeds. 

Remarks : Jerdon (1851) first described this 
species under the genus Ocodoma from Southern 
India (Malabar), having thorax with two small 
spines' ' anteHorly 'and -tWd lairge/cuEvedr- spinas 
posteriorly. Later' oh,. Bingham (190a) mentioned 



60 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 



this species under the genus Lophomyrmex, having 
thorax with the characters of the genus, a shght 
transverse carina between the pronotal spines, the 
latter triangular, dentate; mesonotum with a 
prominent transverse carina about the middle, 
generally bidentate; basal portion of metanotum 
short, widening posteriorly, the metanotal spines 
long, acute and slightly curved. He {op. cit.) noted 
its distribution as "N. W. Provinces, Dehra Dun; 
Sikkim; Orissa; Calcutta; Malabar; Kanara". 

31. Genus Pheidologeton Mayr 

1862. Phidologeton Mayr, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 12 : 
750. 

Type-species : Ocodoma diversa Jerdon, 1851 , from South 
India. 

129. Pheidologeton af finis (Jerdon) 

1851. Ocodoma affinis Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. ScL, 17 : 110, 
2|, §. 

1858. Atta bellicosa Smith, Cat. Hytn. Brit. Mus., 6 : 164, 

1861. Solenopsis laboriosa Smith, J. Proc. Linn. Sac, 6 : 
48, 5. 

1863. Solenopsis calida Smith, J. Proc. Linn. Soc, 7 : 22. 

1903. Phidologiton affinis, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 164, a| max., 2| min., 5, 9, CT. 

1922. Pheidologeton affinis, Emery, Genera Insect, 114 C 

: 212. 

1966. Pheidologeton affinis, Ettershank, Aust. J. ZooL, 
14 (1) : 118. 

1 994. Pheidologeton affinis, Tiwari et ai. State Fauna Series 
3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 266. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Top-Slip, 5 soldiers, 6 workers (maj. and 
min.), 18.ii.l969, coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. N. 
Tiwari; Lower Camp, 2 soldiers, 10 workers (maj. 
and min.), 23.ii.1969, coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. 
N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kerala, 
Maharashtra, Assam, West Bengal. Elsewhere : 
Sri Lanka, Burma and S. E. Asia. 



Biological notes : The collected specimens of this 
species P. affinis (Jerdon, 1851) has been found in 
the dead stump of a soft wood and under stones. 

Remarks : Jerdon (1851) noted "this ant is very 
common in Malabar; is nearly allied to, but differs 
from O. diversa in the toothed jaws of the 
Warriors". Bingham (1903) mentioned its 
distribution as "Bengal; Western India from Poona 
to Travancore; Ceylon; Assam; Burma; 
Tenasserim". 

130. Pheidologeton diversus (Jerdon) 

1851. Ocodoma diversa Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci., 17 : 
109, 2|, $. 

1858. Pheidole ocellifera Smith, Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., 6 : 
174, 5. 

1858. Pheidole taprobanae Smith, Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., 
6 : 175. 

1903. Phidologiton diversus, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2: 162, 2| max., a| min., §, 9, C?. 

1 95 1 . Pheidologeton diversus. Chapman and Capco, Moiiogr. 
Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 
159.^ 

1966. Pheidologeton diversus, Ettershank, Aust. J. ZooL, 
14(1) : 118. 

1994. Pheidologeton diversus, Tiwari et ai, Sta.e Fauna 
Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 266. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala, Karnataka, 
Maharashtra, Sikkim, West Bengal. Elsewhere : 
Burma and extending into the Malayan subregion. 

Biological notes : Most of the ants of the genus 
Pheidologeton make their nests under bricks, 
stones, flower pots, rock-works, or any spot 
offering shelter or shade of this nature (Rothney, 
1889 : 369). Later on, Bingham (1903 : 161) also 
noted that nests of this group of ants can be found 
under the blocks of laterite road-material collected 
by the sides of roads repairing purpose. He had 
also found large and populous nests under stacks 
of bricks in a brickfield, under fallen logs in the 
jungle, and in the foundations of the pillars of the 



TIWARI : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 



61 



wooden bunglows. He {op. cit.) further mentioned, 
"the gaint soldiers, however formidable they look, 
are absolutely unable to give even a decent nip, 
but the bites of the smaller forms of soldiers and 
of 5 min. are vicious and to be remembered. In a 
nest of these ants, the workers far outnumber the 
various forms of soldiers. So the attack of the tiny 
worker is far more ferocious and effective than 
that of the soldiers". 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. However, Jerdon (1851) 
first described this species from Southern India. 
Bingham (1903) also recorded this species from 
Southern India and mentioned its distribution as 
"Sikkim; Bengal; Western India, Poona, Kanara, 
Calicut, Travancore; Burma and Tenasserim. 
Extending into the Malayan subregion". 

32. Genus Meranoplus Smith 

1854. Meranoplus Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, (2) 2 : 224. 

Type-species : Cryptocerus bicolor Guerin, 1838, from 
India. 



Key to the Species of Meranoplus 

1 . Pilosity very long; head a little longer than 
broad; clypeus smooth, convex in the middle; 
the pro-mesonotal shield about as broad as 
long; mesonotum armed posteriorly with two 
long acute spines; 2nd node of pedicel 
unarmed bicolor 

— Pilosity shorter; head nearly square; clypeus 
striate, medially concave; the pro-mesonotal 
shield broader than long; mesonotum armed 
posteriorly with only comparatively short 
teeth; 2nd node of pedicel armed posteriorly 
above with a distinct rather thick tooth 
pointing backwards belli 

* 1 3 1 . Meranoplus bicolor (Guerin) 

1838. Cryptocerus bicolor Guerin, Cuv. Iconog. Regn. 
Anim. Ins., 3 ; 425. 

1903. Meranoplus bicolor, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 168, §, 9, C?. 



1922. Meranoplus bicolor, Emery, Genera Insect., 174 C : 
228. 

1951. Meranoplus bicolor, Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 
Inst. Sci. Tech.. Manila (Check List Ants Asia). 1 : 
112. 

1994. Meranoplus bicolor, Tiwari et al.. State Fauna 
Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 258. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Several workers, Yercaud, near Municipal 
Garden, 12. ii. 1969, Top-Slip, 18. ii. 1969, 
Pallaimcottai, 26.ii.1969 and Mylar Kulasakrum, 
28.ii.1969, coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, West Bengal 
and mostly throughout India, except the hot dry 
plains in the North- Western Provinces, Punjab and 
Central India. Elsewhere : Nepal, Burma, Indonesia 
(Sumatra) and extending to the Malayan subregion. 

132. Meranoplus belli Forel 

1902. Meranoplus belli Forel, Rev. Suisse ZuoL. 10 : 240, 

1903. Meranoplus belli, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 169, 5- 

1922. Meranoplus belli, Emery, Genera Insect., 174 C : 

228. 
1951. Meranoplus belli. Chapman and Capco. Monogr. 

Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 

112. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Top-Slip (Sirakarpadi Tunnel Entry), 2 
workers, 18.ii.I969, ex. from trunk of a teak tree, 
coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Karnataka 
and Western India. 

Remarks : Bingham (1903) also recorded this 
species and mentioned its distribution as "Western 
India, Kanara". 

]33. Meranoplus carinatus Donisthorpe 

1942. Meranoplus carinatus Donisthorpe, Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist.. (11)9 : 456. 



5-6IZSl/Ca\.l9d 



62 



1 95 1 . Memnoplm carinatus, Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 
Inst. Sci. Tech. Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 
112. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala (Malabar). 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available foi this study. However, Donisthorpe 
(1942c) described this species and menaoned its 
locality as "Amarambalam Forest, 500-1500 ft.-, 
Malabar, Southern India". Chapman and Caj oo 
(1 95 1 ) also mentioned its distribution as "S. India : 
Malabar". 

134. Meranoplus flaviventris Donisthorpe 

1 943. Meranoplus flaviventris Donisthorpe, Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., (11) 10 : 202. 

1951. Meranoplus flaviventris. Chapman and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia), 1 : 113, 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : Kerala. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. Donisthorpe (1943) fifSt 
described this species from Tenamaiai (500-800 
ft.), Travancore, Southern India. Later on. Chapman 
and Capco ( 1 95 1 ) also recorded this species and 
mentioned its distribution as "S. India : 
Travancore". 

135. Meranoplus levis Donisthorpe 

1942. Meranoplus levis Donisthorpe, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
(11)9: 455. 

1951. Meranoplus levis, Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 
hut. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 
113. 

Material examined : Nil. 
Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu. 

Remarks : No specimens of this species could be 
available for this study. However, Donisthorpe 
(1942c) mentioned its locality as "Dohnavur (350 
ft.), Tinnelvell-y Dist., Southern India". 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 

136. Memmpths rothneyi Forel 

1902. Meranoplus rothneyi Forel, Rev. Suisse ZooL, 10 : 
241, 5. 

1903. Meranoplus rothneyi, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera-, 2 : 170, 5■ 
!951. MtmftOplus rothneyi, Chapman and Capeo, Monogf. 

Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 
113. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. Elsewhere ; China. 

Remarks t The fflateficll 6f this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) and Chapman and Capco (1951) recorded 
this species from Cochin, South India. 

33; GehUS Triglyphothrix Forel 
1890. Triglyphothrix ¥ort\: Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 34 : 106. 
Type-species ; T. walshi Forel, 1890, from India. 

137. Triglyphothrix decamera Forel 

1902, TriglyphothriK decamera Forel, R^v. Suisse ZooL, 10 
: 240, $, 

1903, triglyphothrix decamera, Bingham, Fauna Brit. 
India, Hymenoptera, 2 : 174, $. 

1951. Triglyphotrix decamera. Chapman and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia), 1 : 178. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) recorded this species from Kanara. 
Subsequendy, Chapman and Capco (1951) also 
listed this species from the same locality. 

138. Triglyphothrix musculus Forel 

1902, Triglyphothrix musculus Forel, Rev. Suisse ZooL, 
10 : 329. 

1903, Triglyphothrix musculus, Bingham, Fawia Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 173, 5- 



TIWARI ; Taxoromic Studies on Ants of Southern India 
1 95 1 . Tiiglypliotrix inusculus. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 

Imi Sci. Tfcli, Mmila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 ; 

178. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala and Tamil Nadu. 

Remarlts : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) recorded this species and mentioned its 
locality as "The Nilgiris". 

139. Triglyphothrix obesa (Andre) 

1887. Tetramorium obesa Andre, Rev. d'Ent., 6:294. 

1903. Triglyphothrix obesa, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 173, §. 

1951. Triglyplwtrix obesa. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 
Inst. Sci. Teclv. Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 ; 
178. 

1994. Triglyphothrix obesa, Tiwari el ai, State Fauna 
Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 268. 

IVlaterial examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kamataka, Maharashtra, 
West Bengal. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. Bingham (1903), however, 
reported this species and mentioned its distribution 
as "Bengal; Western India, Bombay and kanara". 
Subsequently, Tiwari et ai (1994) also recorded 
its distribution as "West Bengal, Karnataka, 
Maharashtra". 

34. Genus Tetramorium Mayr 

1855. Tetramorium Mayr, Verb, zaol.-bot. Ges. Wien, 5 : 
423. 
Type-species : Formica caespitum Linnaeus, 1758. from 
Europe. 

Key to the Species/Subspecies of Tetramorium 

1. Antennae 12-Jointed guineense 

— Antennae 11-jointed pilosum yerburyi 



63 



140. Tetramorium guineense (Fabricius) 

I7Q3. Fonnica gummm Fabricius, M. Sysl., 2 : 3.')7. ^. 

1903. Tetramorium guineense, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 

Hymenoptera, 2 ; 184, §. 
1922. Tetramorium guineense. Yimery, Genera Insect., 174 

$ ; 278. 

1 95 1 . Tetramorium guineense. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 
Inst. Sci. Tech.. Manila (Check List Ants sia), 1 : 175. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Kerala : 
Trivandrum, several workers, vii.1968, coll. N. M. 
Antony. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala, Karnataka, 
Maharashtra. 

Remarks : Bingham (1903) also recorded this 
species and mentioned its distribution as "Western 
India, Bombay, Kanara". 

**141. Tetramorium pilosus yerburyi Forel 

1902. Tetramorium (Xiphomyrmex) pilosum Emery, race 
yerburyi Forel, Rev. Suisse ZooL, 10 ; 238. 

1903. Tetramorium yerburyi. Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 ; 187, ^. 

1 922. Xiphomyrmex pilosus yerburyi, Emery, Genera Insect., 

174 C ; 288. 
1978. Tetramorium pilosus yerburyi, Bolton, Bull. Brit. 

Mus. Nat. Hist. (Ent.), 34 (5) 1976 : 359. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 

Nadu : Periyakulam, 12 workers, 22.ii.1969, ex. 

from trunk of a coconut tree, coll. O. B. Chhotani 

and R. N. Tiwari; Suranganar Forest, Lower Camp, 

10 workers, 23.ii.1969, coll. O. B. Chhotani and 

R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu. Elsewhere : 

Sri Lanka. 

Remarks : This subspecies is recorded here for 

the first time from Indian territory. 

142. Tetramorium fergusoni Forel 

1902. Tetramorium fergusoni Forel, Rev. Suisse ZooL, 10 : 

234. 



64 



1903. Tetramoriumfergusoni, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 182, 5. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) recorded this species so far only from 
Travancore. 

143. Tetramorium inglebyi Forel 

1902. Tetramorium inglebyi Forel, Rev. Suisse ZooL, 10 : 
233, ?. 

.'903. Tetramorium ingleloyi, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 183, ?. 

Matt^rial examinted : Nil. 
Distribi.'tion : DNDIA : Kerala. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for ti?is study. Bingham (1903) however, 
reported this spixies and rricntioned its locality as 
"Travancore". 

144. Tetramorium coonoorense Forel 

1902. Tetramorium co.-ynoorense Forel, Rev. Suisse Zool., 
10 : 237, 5. 

1903. Tetramorium coonoorense, Bingham, Fauna Brit. 
India, Hymenoptera, 2 : 178, ?, 9- 

Material examined : N il. 

Distribution : INDIA : Xerala and Tamil Nadu. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) recorded this species so far only from the 
Nilgiri Hills. 

145. Tetramorium mixtum Forel 

1902. Tetramorium mixtum Forel. Rev. Suisse ZooL, 10 : 
236. 

1903. Tetramorium mixtum, Bingham, Fauna Brit India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 ; 182, ^. 

1951. Tetramorium mixtum. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 
Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 
176. 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu and Kerala. 

Remarks ; Material of this species could not be 
available for this study. Bingham (1903) however, 
mentioned its localities as "The Nilgiris, Coonoor, 
Ootacamund". Subsequently, Chaptnan and Capco 
(1951) also reported this species from the Nilgiri 
Hills and doonoor. 

146. Tetramorium wroughtoni (Forel) ^ 

1902. Rhoptromyrmex wroughtoni Forel, Rev. Suisse ZooL, 
10: 231. 

1903. tetramorium wroughtom, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : ill, $, cf. 

1951. Acidomyrmex wroughtoni. Chapman and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. ScL Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia), 1 : 174. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : ICamataka, Western India. 
Elsewhere : Upper Burma. 

Remarks l The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) mentioned its localities as "Western India, 
Kanara; Upper Burma, Bemardmyo, 6000 ft.". 

147. Tetramorium rothneyi (Forel) 

1902. Rhoptromyrmex wroughtoni race rothneyi Forel, Rev. 
Suisse ZooL, 10 : 232. 

1903. Tetramorium rothneyL Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 177, *?. 

1 95 I . Acidomyrmex rothneyi. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 
Inst. ScL Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 
173. 

\994. Acidomyrmex rothneyi, Tiwari et aL, State Fauna ' 
Series 3 : Fauna of West BengaL Part 8 : 253. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kamataka, West Bengal. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. However, Bingham (1903) 



TIWARI ; Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 



65 



reported this species from Bangalore, Southern 

India, 

148. Tetramorium smithi Mayr 

1 879. Tetramorium smithi Mayr, Verh. lool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 
28 ; 673, $. 

1903. Tetramorium smithi, Bingliam, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 188, 5. 

1977. Tetramorium smithi, Bolton, Bull Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
(Ent.). 36 (2) : 90, Syns. 

1994. Tetramorium smithi, Tiwari et a!.. State Fauna Series 
3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 268, 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Southern and Western 
India, West Bengal. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. Bingham (1903) 
however, mentioned its distribution as "Bengal, 
Western and Southern India". 

149. Tetramorium tortuosum var. belli Forel 

1902. Tetramorium tortuosum Roger, 1863, var. belli Forel, 
Rev. Suisse ZooL. 10 : 238. 

1903. Tetramorium tortuosum var. belli, Bingham, Fauna 
Brit. India, Hymenoptera, 2 : 188. 

1951. Xyphomyrmex tortuosus var. belli. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 1 80. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kamataka, Western India. 

Remarks : The material of this variety belli could 
not be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) recorded belli Forel as a variety under T. 
tortuosum from Western India, Kanara. 

150. Tetramorium belgaense Forel 

1902. Tetramorium (Xyphomyrmex) belgaense Forel, Rev. 
Suisse ZooL, 10 : 238, 9- 

1903. Tetramorium belgaense, Bingham, Fauna Brit India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 1 89, 9- 



1951. Xyphomyrmex belgaumensis. Chapman and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 

Asia), 1 ; 179, 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kamataka, Western India. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. Bingham (1903) however, 
reported this species and mentioned its localities 
as "Western India, Belgaum". Subsequently, 
Chapman and Capco (1951) also recorded this 
species from Belgaum. 

35. Genus Cataulacus Smith 

1853. Cataulacus Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, (2) 2 : 225. 

Type-species : C. taprobanae Smith, 1853, from Sri 
Lanka (formerly Ceylon). 

151. Cataulacus (Cataulacus) latus Forel 

1891. Cataulacus latus Forel, in Grandidier, Hist. Phys. 
Nat. Pol. Madagascar, 20 (2) : 144. 

1903. Cataulacus latus, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, ■ 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 121, 5, 9- 

1951. Cataulacus (Cataulacus) latus. Chapman and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia), 1 : 85. 

1994. Cataulacus (Cataulacus) latus, Tiwari et al.. State 
Fauna Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 254. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala, Orissa, West 
Bengal. Elsewhere : Burma. 

Remarks : The material of this species could nol 
be available for this study. However, Donisthorpe 
(1943) in reports of ants of Southern India, based 
on Columbo Museum Expedition (Sept.-Oct., 
1983), mentioned its locality as "Tenamalai, 500- 
800 ft., Travancore, Southern India". 

36. Genus Atta Fabricius 

1804. Atta (Pt.) Fabricius, Syst. Piez., : 423. 

Type-species : Formica cephalotes Linnaeus, 1861. 



66 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 



152. Attn domicola Jerdon 

1851. Atta domicola Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Set, 17 : 105, $. 

1951. Atta domicola, Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. 
Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 83. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Andhra Pradesh. 

Remarks : No material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Jerdon (1851) 
first described this species from Nellore, South 
India in a hole of a house. 

153. Atta dissimilis Jerdon 

1851. Atta dissimilis Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci., 17 : 107. 

1951. Atta dissimilis. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. 
Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 83. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala (Malabar). 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Jerdon (1851) 
described this species under the genus Atta which 
was found in small numbers on trees in Malabar, 
South India. 

VI. Subfamily FORMICINAE Lepeletier 

The species belonging to this subfamily are 
probably mentally and socially the most highly 
developed of all the ants. Structurally they are 
distinguished by having a one-jointed pedicel with 
no constriction between the two basal abdominal 
segments; the poison-glands and stings are 
considerably modified, the former being converted 
into a cushion of convolutions, the latter forming 
merely an orifice for the ejaculation of the poison, 
which in certain genera (Oceophylla, for instance) 
c^n be done with considerable force; the orifice of 
the cloaca is in this subfamily always circular, and 
ciliated round the margin. 

Certain genera of this subfamily such as 
Formica and Myrmecocystus are well known as 
slave-makers, but this habit seems confined to 
these genera in Europe, and does not so far as has 



been observed, obtain in the representatives or 
even in the same genera in India. Species of 
representative genus Camponotus of this subfamily, 
are pre-eminently known as farmers of Aphides, 
Homoptera, Lycaenid-larvae and such like 
ant-cattle. 

37. Genus Oecophylla Smith 

1861 . Oecophylla Smith, / Proc. Linn. Soc. Land. ZooL, 5 : 

101, ?, 9. 

Type-species ; Formica virescens Fabricius, 1775, from 
Australia. 

154. Oecophylla smaragdina (Fabricius) 
1775. Formica smaragdina Fabricius, Syst. Ent, 1775 : 828, 

9. 

1851. Formica smaragdina, Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci., 
17: 121, 5, 9, Cf. 

1903. Oecophylla smaragdina, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 311, $ maj., 5 min., 9, C?- 

1925. Oecophylla smaragdina, Emery, Genera Insect. 183 : 

51. 

1941. Oecophylla smaragdina, Donisthorpe, Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist., (11) 8 (45) : 457. 

1 994. Oecophylla smaragdina, Tiwari et ai. State Fauna 
Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 281. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : more than 100 workers, Kurambapatty 
Reserve Forest, 1 1-13. ii. 1969; Coimbatore, 
Botanical Garden, 15.ii.l969; Periyakulam, 
22. ii. 1969 and Kulasekrum Forest Range, 
28.ii.1969, coll. O.B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kamataka, 
Kerala (Malabar), West Bengal and mostly the 
whole of India, except desert and treeless areas. 
Elsewhere : Burma, Sri Lanka, S. China, Malaya, 
New Guinea, Australia. 

Biological notes : This species was collected 
from nests on Mangifera indica, Strychnose sp., 
Nuxvomica sp., coconut and Aslioka trees. The 
nests are made in the kdves which are bound 
together by fine whitish membranous tissue paper 



TlWARl : Taxpnomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 

litu synthetic substance. Some eggs were also 
found in the nest at Salem. 

This is the notorious and vicious 'Red-Ant' of 
India; it inhabits in trees and makes nest in leaves. 
Its habits have been very well described by Jerdon 
(1851), Aitken (1889), Rothney (1989), 
Wroughton (1893-94) and Green (1896, 1900). In 
Kanara and some other parts of the country, and 
through Burma and Siam, a paste made of this 
species of ant pounded is eaten as a condiment 
with curry. 

The eggs of O. smaragdina have been found to 
contain high protein, fat and as such it is used as 
a medicine to combat the condition of A- 
Vitaminosis, particularly in case of Marasemus 
condition. It is widely used for above purpose in 
tribal people and the eggs are sold in weekly- 
market for the purpose. 

Remarks : lerdon (1851) also reported this 
species under the genus Formica from South India 
and noted "This ant is well known in Malabar, and 
the wooded parts of India, but is rare in the 
Carnatic, where I have only seen it in one or two 
large Mango groves". Subsequently, Bingham 
(1903) mentioned its distribution as "The whole 
of India, Burma and Ceylon within our limits, 
except the desert and treeless tracts. The range of 
this species extends through the Malayan subregion 
to Australia and New Guinea." 

38. Genus Myrmecocystus Wesmael 

1838. Myrmecocystus V'Jesmae], Bull. Acad. Sc. Bncx., 5 : 
770. 
Type-species ; Formica, melligera Llave, 1832, from 
America. 

155. Myrmecocystus setipes Forel 

1 894. Myrmecocystus viaticus race setipes Forel, J. Bombay 

Nat. Hist. Soc, 8 : 401, ?. 
1903. Myrmecocystus setipes, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 

Hymenoptera, 2 : 312, §. 

1930. Cataglyphis bicolor subsp. setipes, Negi et al, J. 
Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 34 (1) : 186. 



67 

1 95 1 . Myrmecocystus setipes. Chapman and Capco, Monogr 
Inst. ScL Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 ; 

203. 

1994. Myrmecocystus setipes, Tiwari et al., State hawia 
Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 278. 

Materia! examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Punjab, 
Central India, West Bengal. Elsewhere : Persia. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. However, Negi et al. 
(1930) recorded setipes as a subspecies from Salem, 
Tamil Nadu. 

39. Genus Acantholepis Mayr 

1861. Acantholepis Mayr, Europ. Formicid., ; 42. 

Type-species : Hypoclinea frauenfeldi Mayr. 1855, from 
Europe. 

*156. Acantholepis frauenfeldi (Mayr) 

1855. Hypoclinea frauenfeldi Mayr. Verh. zool.-hol. Ges. 
Wien, 5 : 378, $. 

1903. Acantholepis frauenfeldi. Bingham, Fauna Brit. 
India, Hymenoptera. 2 ; 316, 5, 9- 

1925. Acantholepis frauenfeldi. Emery, Genera Insect.. 

183 ; 25. 
1994. Acantholepis frauenfeldi. Tiwari el al., Slate Fauna 

Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 ; 282. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Andhra 

Pradesh : Nagerjunkonda, 6 workers, 25.vii.1962, 

coll. T. N. Maligi. 

Distribution : INDIA : Andhra Pradesh, West 

Bengal. Elsewhere : Southern Europe and Northern 

Africa. 

Remarks : This is a variable species and is 

reported by a number of varieties and subspecies 

extending to North Africa and Southern Europe. 

Its habitat is within the limits spread irregularly in 

one form or another through Continental India, 

confined chiefly to the hills but procured by Mr. 

Rothney at Barrackpore, West Bengal (Bingham, 

1903). 



68 



157. Acantholepis opaca Forel 

1892. Acantholepis opaca Ford, Ann. Soc. Ent. Beige., 26 : 
42. 

1903. Acantholepis opaca. Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 318, 5. 

1 95 1 . Acantholepis opaca, Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 
Inst. Sci. Tech.. Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 
210. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka, Goa. 

Remariis : The material of thi.s .species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) recorded this species from Kanara and 
Goa. Later on. Chapman and Capco (1951) also 
reported this species from 'Kanara". 

158. Acantholepis fergusoni Forel 

1895. Acantholepis fergusoni Forel, / Bombay Nat. Hist. 
Soc. 9 : 459, ?. 

1903. Acantholepis fergiLsoni, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera. 2 : 319, $. 

1 95 1 . Acantholepis fergu.soni. Chapman and Capco, Monogr 
Inst. Sci. Tech.. Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 
210. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) and Chapman and Capco (1951) reported 
this species from Travancore, South India. 

40. Genus Camponotus Mayr 

1861. Camponotus Mayr, Europ. Formicid., : 35. 

Type-species : Formica ligniperdus Latreille, 1798, from 
Europe. 

Key to the Species of Camponotus 

1 . Thorax viewed from side forming a regular 
arch 2 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 

— Regular arch of the thorax -interrupted at the 
meso-metanotal suture by the metanotum 

forming an angle with mesonotum 

sericeus 

2. Head, thorax and abdomen black 3 

— Head, thorax and abdomen never all black or 
all yellow rufoglaucus 

3. Tibiae of the legs prismatic 4 

— Tibiae of the legs compressed, but not 
prismatic dolendus 

4. ? maj. Length 11-16 mm.; $ min. with head 
posteriorly narrow but not constricted to form 
a collar compressus 

— 5 maj. Length 17-21 mm.; $ min. with head 
posteriorly constricted so as to form a collar 

angusticolUs 

159. Camponotus angusticolUs (Jerdon) 

1851. Formica cmgusticoUis Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci., 
17: 120, ?, Q|. 

1858. Formica ardens Smith, Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., 6 : 17. 

1858. Frmica impetuosa Smith, Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., 6: 
17. 

1858. Formica callida Smith, Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., 6:18. 

1862. Camponotus prismaticus Mayr. Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. 
Wieii, 12 : 669, ?. 

1903. Camponotus angusticolUs, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 ; 366, ? maj., $ min., 9. 

1925. Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) angusticolUs, Emery, 
Genera Insect., 183 : 89. 

1951. Camponotus (Dinomyrmex) angusticolUs, Chapman 
and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check 
List Ants Asia), 1 : 229. 

1994. Camponotus angusticolUs. Tiwari et c'... State Fauna 
Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 272. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : 15 workers (maj. and min.), Coimbatore 
(Sugarcane Research Institute compound). 



TIWARI : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 



69 



15.ii.l969; Tudiyalur, 16.ii.l969, coll. O. B. 
Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kerala, 
Western and Central India, Assam, West Bengal. 
Elsewhere :- Nepal, Burma. 

Remarks : Jerdon (1851) first described this 
species under the genus Formica in the forests in 
Malabar. Donisthorpe (1942) also reported this 
species under the genus Camponotus from South 
India. This ant has been collected here from trunks 
of Acacia sp. and an unknown tree and also on 
ground. 

1 60. Camponotus compressus (Fabricius) 
1787. Formica compressa Fabricius, Mant. Insect., 1 : 307, 

1892. Camponotus macidatus Fabricius, race compressus, 
Forel, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 7 : 229 & 240. 

1 903. Camponotus compressus, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 351, 5 maj., $ min., 9, cf. 

1925. Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) compressus, Emery, 
Genera Insect., 183 : 98. 

1951. Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) compressus. Chapman 
and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Mcmila (Check 
List Ants Asia), 1 : 244. 

1994. Camponotus compressus, Tiwari et al. State Fauna 
Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 273. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Several workers (maj. and min.), Salem, 
10.ii.l969; Yercaud, 13.ii.l969, coll. O.B. Chhotani 
and R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Assam, West 
Bengal. Elsewhere : Sri Lanka, Nepal, Burma, 
Philippines, Borneo, Russia, Arabia and Africa. 

Biological notes : This is the common black ant 
in India. The nests are in soil and heaps of earth 
are brought out in the form of small files. In 
Southern India, it was collected from soil and 
from a tree the wood of which is used in making 
the match sticks. Their food is chiefly vegetable 
secretions, sugar etc. They bite rather severely, but 



the pain is quite momentary. This species is 
plentiful where it occurs. It is one of the ants noted 
for tending and keeping "ant-cattle". 

Remarks : Jerdon (1851) and Donisthorpe (1943) 
also reported this species from South India under 
the genera Formica and Camponotus respectively. 
Negi et al. (1930) also recorded this species under 
the genus Camponotus from Tamil Nadu (Salem). 

161. Camponotus sericeus (Fabricius) 

1798. Formica sericeus Fabricius, Ent. Syst. Suppl. : 297. 

1851. Formica cinerascens Fabr. ?, Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. 
Sci., 17 : 123, ^, 9, Cf. 

1858. Formica obtusa Sm\±, Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., 6 : 30. 

1878. Camponotus opaciventris Mayr, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. 
Wien, 28 : 648, 5 . 

1892. Camponotus sericeus, Forel, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. 
Soc, 7 : 223 & 231, ^. 

1903. Camponotus sericeus, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 376, 5 maj., $ min., 9- 

1925. Camponotus (Orthonotomyrmex) sericeus, Emery, 
Genera Insect., 183 : 125. 

1951. Camponotus (Orthonotomyrmex) sericeus. Chapman 
and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check 
List Ants Asia), 1 : 242. 

1994. Camponotus sericeus, Tiwari et al. State Fauna 
Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 275. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu, 20 workers, Coimbatore, 15. ii. 1969, 
Mumdanthorai Tiger Sanctuary near 
Ambasamudrum, 17.ii.l969, coll. O. B. Chhotani 
and R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kamataka, 
West Bengal and more or less common throughout 
the country. Elsewhere : Burma, Sri Lanka, 
Indochina, Arabia, Egypt and Tropical Africa. 

Remarks : Jerdon (1851) reported Formica 
cinerascens Fabr. ? from Kamataka, South India 
which was later considered as a synonym of C. 
sericeus (Fabr.) by Bingham (1903). Subsequently, 



70 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 



Donisthorpe (1941 : 458) also reported this species 
sericeus under the genus Camponotus 
(Orthonotomyrmex) from Tamil Nadu, South India. 

162. Camponotus mfoglaucus (Jerdon) 

1851. Formica mfoglaucus Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. ScL, 17 : 
124. 

1862. Camponotus redtenhacheri Mayr., Verh. zooL-bot. 
Ges. Wien, 12 : 667 & 770, §. 

1 903. Camponotus rufoglaucus, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 363, $ maj., ? min. 

1925. Camponotus (Myrmosericus) rufoglaucus, Emery, 
Genera Insect., 183 : 105. 

1943. Camponotus (Myrmosericus) rufoglaucus, 
Donisthorpe, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (11) 10 : 204. 

1951. Camponotus (Myrmosericus) rufoglaucus. Chapman 
and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check 
List Ants Asia), 1 : 238. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Yercaud, 7 workers, 12.ii.l969, coll. O. B. 
Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kamataka, 
Kerala, Delhi, Central India, Assam, Deccan 
Plateau. Elsewhere : Nepal, Burma, Sri Lanka. 

Remarlis : Jerdon (1851) first described this 
species under Formica and found this ant only in 
Karnataka in small societies living in hole in the 
ground. Later on, Bingham (1903) and Donisthorpe 
(1943) also reported this species under the genus 
Camponotus from Kerala, South India. 

*163. Camponotus dolendus Forel 

1892. Camponotus rufoglaucus race dolendus Forel, J. 
Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 7 : 227 & 238, 2- 

1903. Camponotus dolendus, Bingham Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 364, 5 maj., ^ min. 

1 925. Camponotus (Myrmosericus) dolenda, Emery, Genera 
Insect. 183 : 106. 

1 95 1 . Camponotus (Myrmosericus) dolenda. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 ; 238. 



1 994. Camponotus rufoglaucus dolenda, Tiwari et ai. State 
Fauna Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 274. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Yercaud, several workers, 12. ii. 1969, coll. 
O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Sikkim, N. 
W. Himalayas (above 5000 ft.), West Bengal. 

] 64. Camponotus paria Emery 

1889. Camponotus mlcans Nyl., race paria Emery, Ann. 
Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 27 : 513, *?. 

1892. Camponotus rufoglaucus, race paria, J. Bombay Nat. 
Hist. Soc, 7 : 226 & 238, ^. 

1903. Camponotus paria, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 364, 2 maj., $ min., 9. 

1 95 1 . Camponotus (Myrmosericus) rufoglaucus subsp. paria. 
Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila 
(Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 238. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala (Malabar), Assam 
and apparently throughout India. Elsewhere : 
Burma, Sri Lanka. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Donisthorpe 
(1942) reported this species and mentioned its 
locality as "Nadangayam, Malabar". 

165. Camponotus mendax Forel 

1895. Camponotus sericeus var. mendax Forel, J. Bombay 
Nat. Hist. Soc, 9 : 454, $. 

1903. Camponotus mendax, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 370, 5 maj., 9- 

195 1 . Camponotus (Orthonotomyrmex) sericeus var. mendax. 
Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila 
(Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 242. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Di .tribition : INDIA : Kamataka. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. However, Bingham (1903) 



TIWARI : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 

reported this species from Mysore, Southern India. 
But Chapman and Capco (1951) also recorded this 
species as a variety from the same locality of 
South India. 

166. Camponotus puniceps Donisthorpe 

1942. Camponotus puniceps Donisthorpe, Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., (11)9 : 458, $. 

1 95 1 . Camponotus (Orthonotomyrmex) puniceps. Chapman 
and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check 
List Ants Asia), 1 : 242. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Donisthorpe 
(1942c) mentioned its locality as "Dohnavur, 
350 ft., Tinnelvelly Dist., South India". 

167. Camponotus barbatus Roger 

1863. Camponotus barbatus Roger, Bed. ent. Zeit., 7 : 138, 

1903. Camponotus barbatus, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 362, ^, 9- 

1 95 1 . Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) barbatus. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 ; 243. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. Elsewhere : Sri 
Lanka, Philippines. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Donisthorpe 
(1943) mentioned its locality as "Tenamalai, 500- 
800 ft., Travancore, South India". 

168. Camponotus taylori Fore! 

1892. Camponotus maculatus Fabr., race toy/on Forel, i. 
Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 7 ; 229 & 241, 5- 

1903. Camponotus taylori, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 353, $ maj., $ min. 

1942. Camponotus barbatus subsp. taylori, Donisthorpe, 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (11)9: 458. 



71 



1951. Camponotus {Tanaemyrmex) barbatus subsp. taylori, 
Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila 
(Check List Ants Asia), 1 ; 243. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala, Tamil Nadu, 
Maharashtra, Orissa, Sikkim, the N. W. Himalayas 
and distributed mostly throughout India. 
Elsewhere : Sri Lanka, Burma and China. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. Bingham (1903), however, 
recorded this species from the Nilgiris of South 
India. But Donisthorpe (1942) reported taylori as 
a subspecies from Tenamalai, Travancore. 

169. Camponotus similis Donisthorpe 

1 943. Camponotus similis Donisthorpe, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
(11) 10 : 198, 5. 

1951. Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) similis. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 ; 250. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. Elsewhere : Burma, 
Sri Lanka. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Donisthorpe 
(1943) described this sp'ecies and mentioned its 
locality as "Tenamalai, Travancore". 

170. Camponotus variegatus (Smith) 

1858. Formica variegatus Smith, Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., 6 : 
20, 5, 9. 

1903. Camponotus variegatus, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 359, § maj., $ min., 9- 

1951. Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) variegatus, Chapman 
and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check 
List Ants Asia), 1 : 251. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu. Elsewhere : 
Sri Lanka, Upper Burma, Singapore, Indonesia 
(Java). 



72 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 



Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. Donisthorpe (1942), 
however, mentioned its locality as "Dohnavur, 
Tirunelvelly Dist., South India". 

171. Camponotus variegatus somifica Forel 

1902. Camponotus variegatus subsp. somifica Forel, Ann. 
Soc. Ent. Belg., 46 : 287, 5- 

1951. Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) variegatus subsp. 
somifica, Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Set. 
Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 ; 252. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kerala, 
Elsewhere : Sri Lanka. 

Remarks : No specimens of this subspecies 
could be available for this study. However, 
Chapman and Capco (1951) recorded this 
subspecies from The Nilgiris, South India. 

172. Camponotus mitis (Smith) 

1 858. Formica mitis Smith, Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., 6 : 20, ^. 

1858. Formica ventralis Smith, Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., 6 : 20, 
9. 

1858. Formica bacchus Smith, Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., 6 : 

21,5^. 

1892. Camponotus maculatus Fabr., race mitis, Forel, / 
Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 7 : 230 & 242, $. 

1903. Camponotus mitis, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 355, ? maj., $ min., 9- 

1 930. Camponotus mitis, Negi et ai, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. 
Soc, 34 (1) : 186. 

1951. Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) variegatus var. mitis. 
Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila 
(Check. List Ants Asia), 1 : 252. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu. Elsewhere : 
Sri Lanka, China, Indonesia (Java, Sumatra, Timor, 
Celebes), New Guinea, Prince Island. 

Remarks : The specimens of this species could 
not be available for this study. Negi et al. (1930), 



however, recorded this species from Salem, Tamil 
Nadu. It is a variable species. 

173. Camponotus thraso Forel 

1893. Camponotus maculatus Fabr., race thraso Forel, J. 
Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 7 : 432, 5- 

1903. Camponotus thraso, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 356, 5 maj., § min. 

1951. Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) thraso. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 251. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. Elsewhere : Sri 
Lanka, Burma. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. Donisthorpe (1943) first 
reported this species from India (Travancore, South 
India) which was later recorded in the Check List 
by Chapman and Capco (1951). 

1 74. Camponotus phragmaticola Donisthorpe 

1943. Camponotus phragmaticola Donisthorpe, Ann. Mag. 
Nat Hist., (11) 10 : 205. 

1951. Camponotus (Colobopsis) phragmaticola. Chapman 
and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check 
List Ants Asia), 1 : 225. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. Donisthorpe (1943) 
first described this species and mentioned its 
locality as "Tenamalai, 500-800 ft., Travancore, 
South India". 

175. Camponotus strictus (Jerdon) 
1851 . Formica striata, Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci., 17 : 123, 

1903. Colobopsis stricta, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 343, ^ maj., ^ min., 9. 

1951. Camponotus (Colobopsis) strictus. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 227. 



TIWARI : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 



73 



Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala (Malabar). 
Elsewhere : Burma, extending to Borneo. 

Remarks : The specimens of this species could 
not be available for this study. However, Jerdon 
(1851) first described this species under the genus 
Formica from Malabar, he (op. cit.) also mentioned 
that he had found this ant on flowers. Later on, 
Bingham (1903) also mentioned its distribution as 
"Malabar; Burma; extending to Borneo". 

176. Camponotus confucii Forel 

1894. Camponotus confucii Forel, / Bombay Nat. Hist. 
Soc, 8 ; 396, 5- 

1903. Camponotus confucii, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 375, 2 maj., 5 min. 

1951. Camponotus (Myrmentoma) confucii. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 235. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA Karnataka and Western 
India. Elsewhere : Upper Burma. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. However, Bingham (1903) 
mentioned its distribution as "Western India, 
Kanara; Upper Burma". He {op. cit.) further noted 
that some specimens of the ^ minor have the 
abdomen dark castaneous red. 

177. Camponotus varius Donisthorpe 

1 943. Camponotus varius Donisthorpe, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
(1!) 10 : 204, 5. 

1951. Camponotus (Myrmentoma) varius. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Checlc List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 235. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. While describing this 
species from India, Donisthorpe (1943) mentioned 



its locality as "Muthikolam, 3000 ft., Coimbatore 
Dist." 

178. Camponotus nirvanae Forel 

1893. Camponotus nirvanae Forel, / Bombay Nat. Hist. 
Soc, 7 : 433, §, 9- 

1903. Camponotus nirvanae, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hynlenoptera, 2 : 377, $ maj., ^ min., 9- 

1930. Camponotus nirvanae, Negi et at., J. Bombay Nat. 
Hist. Soc, 34(1) : 186. 

1951. Camponotus (Myrmamblys) nirvanae. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 233. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, 
Western India. 

Remarks : No specimens of this species could be 
available for this study. Bingham (1903) and 
Chapman and Capco (1951) mentioned its locality 
as "Kanara". But Negi et al. (1930) reported this 
species from Salem Dist., Tamil Nadu. 

179. Camponotus timidus (Jerdon) 

1851 . Formica timida Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. ScL, 17 ; 122, 
2|, 5, 9. 

1951. Camponotus (Myrmepomis) timidus. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 236. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala (Malabar Coast). 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. While describing this 
species, Jerdon (1851) noted that it is very common 
ants in Malabar Coast, living chiefly on vegetable 
secretions and it has its nest under the groynd. 

180. Camponotus velox (Jerdon) 

1851. Formica velox Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci., 17 : 124, 
5. 

1951. Camponotus (Myrmepomis) velox. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 236. 



74 



Material examined : Nil. 



Distribution 

Kamataka. 



INDIA : Kerala (Malabar), 



Remarlis : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. Jerdon (1851) first 
described this species which is mostly common in 
Malabar and also found in Kamataka. He (op. cit.) 
further noted "it frequents flowers, especially 
delighting in those that have great quantities of 
pollen, such as Gucurbitaceae, Hibiscus sp. etc. It 
runs very speedily, and is very easily alarmed, 
dropping to the ground on being touched". 

181. Camponotus radiatus Forel 

1892. Camponotus radiatus Forel, /. Bombay Nat. Hist. 
Soc, 7 : 225 & 233, 5- 

1903. Camponotus radiatus, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 371, § min. 

1951. Camponotus radiatus. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 
Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 
253. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kamataka, Western India. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) reported this species and mentioned its 
locality as "Western India, Kanara". Later on, it 
was further recorded in the Check List by Chapman 
and Capco (1951) from South India and mentioned 
the same locality as "Kanara". 

41. Genus Polyrhachis Smith 

1858. PolyrhaMs (Part) Smith, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Land. 

Zool., 2 : 58. 
!862i Polyrhachis, Mayr, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 12 : 

677. 
Type-species : Formica bihamata Drury, 1773, from 
Malay Peninsula. 

Key to the Species of Polyrhachis 

1. Thorax more or less rounded above, the 
sides not margined along their whole length; 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 
pubescence sparse or dense 2 

— Thorax more or less flat above, the sides 
margined along their whole length; 
pubescence very dense mayri 

2. Pubescence sparse, almost entirely wanting; 

node of pedicel without median spines 

simplex 

— Pubescence dense, silky, recumbent and 
bronzy yellow or golden; 2 small teeth 
between spines on upper lateral angles of 
node of pedicel dives 

182. Polyrhachis mayri Roger 

1863. Polyrhachis mayri Roger, Verz. Formicid. Berlin ent. 
Zeit., 7:7,$. 

1862. Polyrhachis relucens Mayr (nee Latr.), Verh. zool.- 
bot. Ges. Wien, 12 : 685. 

1903. Polyrhachis mayri, Bingham, Fauna Brit India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 404, ^ 9- 

1925. Polyrhachis (Myrma) mayri, Emery, Genera Insect., 
183 : 201. 

1951. Polyrhachis (Myrma) mayri. Chapman and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia), 1 : 272. 

1994. Polyrhachis mayri, Tiwari et ai, State Fauna Series 
3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 276. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Madras, Top-Slip, 10 workers, 17.ii.l969, 
coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Kerala, 
Kamataka, Assam, Sikkim, West Bengal. 
Elsewhere : Sri Lanka, Nepal, Burma, China, 
Philippines, Formosa (Taiwan), Gulf of Siam, 
Krakatau, Indonesia (Java, Sumatra, Borneo, 
Celebes). 

Remarks : Donisthorpe (1943) treated P. mayri 
Roger, 1 863 as a synonym of P. (Myrma) illaudata 
Walker, 1859, but CoUingwood (1970) considered 
mayri as a valid species under Polyrhachis. As the 
author has no access to the types of these species, 
it is not possible to give any opinion by him. The 



TIWARI : Taxonomic Studies en Ants of Southern Fndia 



75 



present specimens come to inayri when run through 
Bingham's (1903) key. 

Prior to this, Bingham (1903) also reported this 
species and mentioned its distribution as "Bengal, 
Sikkim, Kanara, Travancore; Ceylon, Burma; 
extending down to the Malayan subregion". Later 
on, Donisthorpe (1943) atid Chapman and Capco 
(1951) mentioned its habitat as 'S, India' along 
with other localities. 

*183. Polyrhachis dives Smith 

1857. Polyrhachis dives Smith, /. Proc. Linn. Soc. London, 
ZooL. 2 : 64, 5. 

1903. Polyrhachis dives. Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 396, ^. 

1925. Polyrhachis (Myrmhopla) dives, Emery, Genera 
Insect., 183 : 195. 

1 95 1 . Polyrhachis (Myrmhopla) dives, Chaprnari and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Mcmila (Check List Ants 
Asia), 1 : 289. 

1988. Polyrhachis dives, Kohout, Mem. Qiteensl. Mus., 25 
(2) : 433. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Lower Camp, 6 Workers, 22.ii.1969, coll. 
O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution ; INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Sikkim and 
Eastern Himalayas. Elsewhere : Sri Lanka, Burma, 
Thailand, Indo-China, China, Philippines, Malay, 
Molucca, Siam, Formosa, Krakatau, Mainan, lapan, 
Indonesia (Java, Sumatra, Celebes), New Guinea, 
Singapore. 



1994. Polyrhachis simplex, Tiwari et ai. State Fauna 
Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 277. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Madras, Top-Slip, 5 females, 17.ii.l969, 
coll. O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, West Bengal 
and also throughout the country. Elsewhere : 
Burma, Sri Lanka. 

Remarks : This species is nearly the most common 
species of this genus and widely distributed 
throughout the country (Bingham, 1903). 

185. Polyrhachis clypeata Mayr 

1862. Polyrhachis clypeata Mayr, Verh. zooi.-bot. Ges. 
Wien, 12 : 683, 9- 

1903. Polyrhachis clypeata, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera. 2 : 41 1, 5, 9- 

1951. Polyrhachis (Campomyrma) clypeata. Chapman and 
Capco. Monogr, Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 257. 

1994. Polyrhachis clypeata, Tiwari et ai. State Fauna 
Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengcd, Part 8 : 276. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala, Western India, 
West Bengal. Elsewhere : Sri Lanka. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) reported this species from Travancore of 
South India. 



* 1 84. Polyrhachis simplex Mayr 

1862. Polyrhachis simplex Mayr, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. 
Wien, 12 : 682, 9. 

1879. Polyrhachis spiniger Mayr, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. 
Wien, 28 : 653, $, Cf. 

1903. Polyrhachis simplex, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 394, 5, 9, C?. 

1 95 1 . Polyrhachis (Myrmhopla) simplex. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Mcmila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 297. 



186. Polyrhachis clypeata var. obtusisquarna 

Forel 

1902. Polyrhachis clypeata var. ohtusisqucmia Forel, Ann. 
Soc. Ent. Belg., 46 : 289, $. 

1951. Polyrhachis (Campomyrma) clypeata var. 
obtusisquarna, Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. 
Sci. Tech., McmUa (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 257. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka. 



76 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 



Remarks : No specimens of this variety could be 
available for this study. Chapman and Capco (1951) 
mentioned its locality as 'India : Konkan'. 

187. Polyrhachis exercita Walker 

1 859. Polyrhachis exercita Walker, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
(3) 4 : 370, ^. 

1942. Polyrhachis exercita. Donisthorpe, Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., (11)9 ; 461. 

1 95 1 . Polyrhachis (Campomyrma) exercita, Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 258. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Donisthorpe 
(1942c) reported this species from Dohnavur, 
South India. 

188. Polyrhachis rastellata Latreille 

1802. Polyrhachis rastellata Latreille, Hist. Nat. Fourmis, 

1802 : 130,9. 
1861. Polyrhachis busiris Smith, J. Proc. Linn. Soc, 5 : 98, 

1863. Polyrhachis euryalus Smith, J. Proc. Linn. Soc, 
7 : 16, 5. 

1903. Polyrhachis rastellata, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 414, 5, 9- 

1951. Polyrhachis (Cyrtomyrma) rastellata. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 265. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kamataka. Elsewhere : 
Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia 
(Java, Sumatra, Borneo), Lang Is., New Guinea, 
Australia (Queensland). 

Remarks : The specimens of this species could 
not be available for this study. Bingham (1903) 
recorded this species and mentioned its distribution 
from South India as "South Konkan, Kanara" 



along with other localities. 

1 89. Polyrhachis rastellata var. corporaali 

Santschi 

1928. Polyrhachis rastellata var. corporaali Santschi, 
Tijdschr. v. Ent, 71 : 134, fig. 2a, $, 9- 

1928. Polyrhachis rastellata var. /7flgan.s Santschi, Tijdschr. 
V. Ent., 71 : 134, fig. 2c, ^. 

1951. Polyrhachis (Cyrtomyrma) rastellata vw. corporaali. 
Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila 
(Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 265. 

Material examined : Nil. 



Distribution 

Sumatra. 



INDIA : Kamataka, Elsewhere : 



Remarks : No material of this variety could be 
available for this study. The variety pagans 
Santschi, 1928 of P. rastellata was synonymised 
with the variety corporaali Santschi, 1928 of the 
same species by Chapman and Capco (1951 : 265) 
and at the same time they mentioned the habitat of 
the variety pagans as 'Kanara'. 

190. Polyrhachis duodentata Donisthorpe 

1 942. Polyrhachis duodentata Donisthorpe, Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist, (11)9 : 461. 

1951. Polyrhachis (Myrma) duodentata. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 271. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala (Malabar). 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. Donisthorpe (1942c) 
described this species and mentioned its locality as 
"Nadungayam, 200 ft., Malabar, South India", 
which was later recorded with the same locality in 
the Check list by Chapman and Capco (1951). 

191. Polyrhachis illaudata Walker 

1859. Polyrhachis illaudata Walker, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
(3) 4 : 373, ^. 

1 95 1 . Polyrhachis (Myrma) illaudata, Chapmana and Capco, 
Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 
Asia), 1 : 271. 



TIWARl : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 



Tl 



Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, West Bengal. 

Elsewhere : Sri Lanka, Indo-China, Sunda Is., 

Waegeu. 

Remarks : No specimens of this species could be 
available for this study. However, Donisthorpe 
(1943) mentioned its locality as "Nadghani Ghaut, 
Gudulur Dist., South India". Chapman and Capco 
(1951) also mentioned its distribution as "S. India, 
Bengal" and other localities. 

192. Polyrliachis latispinosa Donisthorpe 

1942. Polyrliacliis latispinosa Donisthorpe, Ann. Mag. Nat. 

Hist., (11)9: 460. 
1 95 1 . Polyrhachis (Mynna) latispinosa, Chapman and Capco, 

Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants 

Asia), 1 : 272. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. 

Remarks : The specimens of this species could 
not be available for this study. Donisthorpe (1942c) 
described this species and mentioned its locality as 
"Tenamalai, 500-800 ft., Travancore, South India". 

193. Polyrhachis punctillata Roger 

1863. Polyrhachis punctillata Roger, Berl. ent. Zeit., 7 : 

152, 5,9. 
1894. Polyrhachis punctillata Roger, var. smythiesi Forel, 

J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 9 ; 456. 
1894. Polyrhachis subpilosa Emery, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. 

Nat. Genova, 34 : 480, ^. 
1903. Polyrhachis punctillata, Bingham, Faium Brit India, 

Hymenoptera. 2 : 409, *?, 9- 
1951. Polyrhachis (Mynna) punctillata. Chapman and 

Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 

Ants Asia), 1 : 275. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, Karnataka 
and North-West Provinces. Elsewhere : Sri Lanka, 
Burma, Java. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. Donisthorpe (1943) 
mentioned its locality as "Muthikalam, 300 ft., 
Coimbatore Dist.". Prior to this, Bingham (1903) 
also recorded this species from Kanara of South 



India along with other localities. 

194. Polyrhachis punctillata fergusoni forel 

1902. Polyrhachis punctillala rdCi fergimni Forel, /l/i/l. 

Soc. Ent. Belg., 46 : 289, 5. 
1951. Polyrhachis (Myrmaj pimctillata subsp. fergusoni. 

Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst Sci. Tech., Manila 

(Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 275. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. 

Remarks : The material of this subspecies could 
not be available for this study. Bingham (1903 : 
410) considered P. punctillata race fergusoni 
Forel, 1902 as a synonym of P. punctillata Roger, 
1863. But later on. Chapman and Capco (1951) 
treated fergusoni as separate subspecies under the 
same species and mentioned its habitat as "India : 
Travancore". 

195. Polyrhachis dives belli Forel 

1912. Polyrhachis dives subsp. belli Forel, Zool. .lalirh. 
SuppL, (15) 1 : 74, $. 

1951. Polyrhachis (Mynnhopla) subsp. belli. Chapman 
and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check 
List Ants Asia), 1 : 289. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka. 

Remarks : No specimens of this subspecies could 
be available for this study. While recording this 
subspecies in the Check list, Chapman and Capco 
(1951) mentioned its locality as "India : Kanara". 

196. Polyrhachis binghami Forel 

1893. Polyrhachis binghami Forel, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. 
Soc. 8 ; 25 & 33, 5. 

1903. Polyrhachis binghami, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 399, *^. 

1951. Polyrhachis (Myrmhopla) binghami, Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants A,sia), 1 : 287. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. Elsewhere : Burma. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. However, Donisthorpe 



6-6/2:-SI/Cfli/90 



78 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 



(1942) reported this species from South India and 
mentioned its locality as "Tenamalai, 500-800 ft., 
Travancore", which was further noted in the Check 
list by Chapman and Capco (1951). 

197. Polyrhachis furcata gracilior Forel 

1893. Polyrhachis furcata Smith, 1858, race grac(7/or Forel, 
J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Sac. 8 : 25 & 33, ?. 

1903. PolyHu -his gracilior, Bingham, Fd««a 6Hh India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 388, ij, 

1 95 1 . Polyrhachis (Mynnhopla) furcata subsp. gracilior. 
Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila 
(Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 290. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala, Assam. 

Remarks : The material of this subspecies could 
not be available for this study. Bingham (1903) 
recorded gracilior as a species from Travancore, 
South India, but Chapman and Capco (1951) 
treated it as a subspecies from the same locality. 

198. Polyrhachis indif leans (Jerdon) 

1851. Formica inclificans Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci., 17 : 

125,5,9. 
1951. Polyrhachis (Mynnhopla) indificans, Chapman and 

Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 

Ants Asia), 1 : 293. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala (Malabar). 

Remarks : The specimens of this species could 
not be available for this study. While describing 
this species under the genus Formica from 
Malabar, South India, Jerdon (1851) noted "This 
ant makes a small nest about 7^ inch or more in 
diameter, of some papyraceous material, which it 
fixes on a leaf. Each of the nests contains one 
female and 8 or 10 workers. It is very rare species". 

199. Polyrhachis sylvlcola (Jerdon) 

1851. Formica sylvicola Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci., 17 : 
126, 5, 9. 

1951. Polyrhachis (Mynnhopla) sylvicola, Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 : 298. 

Material examined : Nil. 



Distribution : INDIA ! Kifala (Maldbaf). 

Remarks t No rtidteHai of this species could be 
available for this study. Jerdon (1851) described 
this species under the genus Formica from Malabar, 
South India and noted that this ant has the same 
habits as the last species indiflcdn's, bUt is not 
found except in the JUhgles. 

200. Polyrhachis tibialis Smith 

1858. Polyrhachis tibialis Smith, Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., 6 : 
63, ?, 

1903. Polyfikt'chiS tlBidlis, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 396, 5, 9- 

1951. Polyrhachis (Mynnhopla) tibialis. Chapman and 
Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 
Ants Asia), 1 ; 298. 

1994, PolyHidHhii tibidlli; tiwari et ai. State Fauna Series 
3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 277. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka, Kerala 
(Malabar), West Bengal. Elsewhere : Burma, 
Ittdonesia (Borneo, Celebes). 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. Bingham (1903) 
mentioned its distribution as "India : Kanara, 
Bengal; Ceylon, Burma and extending to the 
Malayan subregion". Subsequently, Donisthorpe 
(1942) also reported this species from Tenamalai 
(500-800 ft.), Travancore and Nadungayam (200 
ft.), Malabar of South India. 

201. Polyrhachis tibialis var. parsls Emery 

1901. Polyrhachis tibialis var. parsis Emery, Ann. Mus. 
Civ. Slor. Nat. Cenova, 40 : 717, 5. 

1951. Polyrhachis (Myrmhopla) tibialis var. parsis. 
Chapman and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila 
(Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 299. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala (Malabar). 
Elsewhere : Celebes, Singapore. 

Remarks : The specimens of this variety could 
not be available for this study. However, 
Donisthorpe (1942) reported this variety and 
mentioned its locality as "Nadungayam, 200 ft., 
Malabar, South India". 



TIWARI : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 



79 



202. Polyrhachis weberi Donisthofpe 

1943. Polyrhachis weberi Donisthorpe, Ann. Mag. Nat. 

Hist.. (11) 10 : 206, $. 
1951. Polyrhachis (Myrmhopla) weberi, Chapman and 

Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 

Ants Asia), 1 : 300. 

Material examihed : Nil. , 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. Donisthorpe (1943) 
described this species from Travancore, South 
India, which was again recorded in the Check list 
from the same locality by Chapman and Capco 
(1951). 

203. Polyrhaehis wroughtoni Forel 

1 894. Polyrhachis wroughtoni Forel, / Bombay Nat, Hist. 

Sac, 8 : 398, ^. 
1903. Polyrhachis wroughtoni, Bingham, Fauna Brit India, 

Hymenoptera, 2 : 401, ^, 9, d. 
1 95 1 . Polyrliachis (Mymhopla) wroughtoni, Chapman and 

Capco, Monogr. Init: Set. Tech,, Manila (Check List 

Ants Asia), 1 : 300. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka. 

Remarks ! No specimens of this species could be 
available fof this study, This species previously 
reported from 'Kanara', South India by Bingham 
(1903) and Chapman and Capco (1951). 

204, Polyrhachis thrinax Roger 

1863. Polyrhachis thrinax Roger. Berl ent. Zeitschr., 7 : 

132, 5. 
1903. Polyrhachis thrina.x, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 

Hymenoptera, 2 : 410, 5, 9, cf. 
1 95 1 . Polyrhachis (Mynnothrinax) thrinax, Chapman and 

Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List 

Ants Asia), 1 : 302. 
19.59. Polyrhachis (Mynnothrinax) thrinax var. mucronis 

Donisthorpe, 1942. Brown, Ent. News, Lancaster, 

70 : 104. 
1 994. Polyrhachis thrinax, Ti wari et al. State Fauna Series 

3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 277. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka, Kerala 
(Malabar), West Bengal. Elsewhere : Sri Lanka, 
Burma, Java. 



Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. Bingham (1903) 
recorded the species P. thrinax Roger, 1 863 and 
mentioned its distribution as "India : Bengal, 
Kanara, Travancore; Ceylon, Burma, Java", which 
was again reported by Donisthorpe (1942) from 
Nadungayam (200 ft.), Malabar, South India. 
Donisthorpe, in the same year, also described 
another new variety mucronis under the same 
species from Malabar, which was later considered 
as a new synonym of P. (Mynnothrinax) thrinax 
Roger, 1863 by Brown (1959). 

205, Polyrhachis indica Mayr 

1870. Polyrhachis indica Mayr, Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 

20 ; 945, 5- 
1951. Polyrhachis indica. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 

Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 

305. 
Material examined : Nil. 



Distribution 

(Pondicherry). 



INDIA 



Tamil Nadu 



Remarks : The specimens of this species could 
not be available for this study. Bingham (1903 : 
411) treated this species P. indica Mayr, 1870 as 
a synonym of P. clypeata Mayr, 1 862, but later 
on. Chapman and Capco (1951) gave P. indica as 
a separate species status in their Check list and 
mentioned its locality as "Pondicherry, South 
India". 

42. Genus Hemioptica Roger 

1862. Hemioptica Roger. Berl. ent. Zeitschr., 6 : 238, ?. 

Type-species : H. scissa Roger, 1862. from Sri Lanka 
(formerly Ceylon). 

206. Hemioptica scissa Roger 

1862. Hemioptica scissa Roger, Berl. ent. Zeitschr., 6 : 240, 

>?,9. 
1893. Polyrhachis scissa, Forel, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 

8 : 17 & 27, 5, <3. 
1903. Hemioptica scissa. Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 

Hymenoptera. 1 : 380, ?, 9. 

1942. Hemioptica scissa, Donisthorpe, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
(11) 9 : 461. 



80 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 



1951. Hemioptica scissa, Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 
Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 
256. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala, Tamil Nadu. 

Remarks : No material of the species could be 
available for this study. However, Donisthorpe 
(1942) mentioned its localities as "Tenamalai, 
Travancore (Kerala) and Dohnavur, Tinnelvelly 
Dist. (Tamil Nadu)". 

207. Hemioptica aculeata (Mayr) 

1878. Polyrhachis aculeata Mayr, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. 

Wien, 28 : 657, §. 
1903. Hemioptica aculeata, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 

Hymenoptera, 2 : 382, §, 9, C?- 
1 95 1 . Hemioptica aculeata. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 

Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 ; 

255. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka, Kerala. 
Elsewhere : Burma, Sri Lanka, Java, Malacca. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. While reporting this 
species under the genus Hemioptica, Bingham 
(1903) mentioned its distribution as "Kanara, 
Travancore" of South India along with other 
localities. 

43. Genus Paratrechina Motschoulsky 

1 863. Paratrechina Motschoulsky, Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscow, 
36 ; 13. 

Type-species : Paratrechina currens Motschoulsky, 1863. 

Key to the Species of Paratrechina 

1 . The scape of antennae hardly extending upto 
the top of the bjad bourbonica 

— The scape of antennae clearly extending 
beyond the top of the head longicornis 

*208. Paratrechina bourbonica (Forel) 

1 886. Prenolepis nodifera bourbonica Forel, Ann. Soc. Ent. 

Belg., 30 : 210, 5. 9, Cf. 
1 894. Prenolepis bourbonica Forel, race bengalensis Forel, 

J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 8 : 406. 



1903. Prenolepis bengalensis, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 

Hymenoptera, 2 : 328, ?. 
1925. Paratrechina (Nylanderia) bourbonica bengalensis, 

Emery, Genera Insect., 183 : 219. 

1951. Nylanderia bourbonica, Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 

Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 

214. 
1 95 1 . Nylanderia bourbonica subsp. bengalensis, Chapman 

and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check 

List Ants Asia), 1 : 215. 
1967. Paratrechina (Nylanderia) bourbonica, Wilson and 

Taylor, Pacific Insects Monogr., 14 : 88. 
1987. Paratrechina bourbonica, Taylor, CSIRO Aust. Div. 

EntomoL, Rep. No. 41 : 52. 
1994. Paratrechina bourbonica, Tiwari et al. State Fauna 

Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 ; 280. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : Several workers, Salem, 12.ii.l969, 
Coimbatore, 15.ii.l969, Top-Slip, 18.ii. 1969, coll. 
O. B. Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, West Bengal. 
Elsewhere : Burma, Seychelles, Pemba Is., Oceania. 

Biological notes : This species of ant has been 
collected from the trees, Mangifera indica and 
Peltophorum pterocarpum and from a dead stump 
of an unknown plant. 

Remarks : Taylor (1987) also treated Paratrechina 
as a genus and made a list of some species along 
with some synonyms under the genus Paratrechina. 

*209. Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille) 

1802. Formica longicornis Latreille, Hist. Nat. Fourm., : 

113,5. 
1903. Prenolepis longicornis, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 

Hymenoptera, 2 : 326, 5, 9, <3. 
1925. Paratrechina (Paratrechina) longicornis, Emery, 

Genera Insect., 183 : 217. 

1951. Paratrechina (Paratrechina) longicornis. Chapman 

and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check 

List Ants Asia), 1 : 218. 
1987. Paratrechina longicornis, Taylor, CSIRO Aust. Div. 

EntomoL, Rep. No. 41 : 52. 
1994. Paratrechina longicornis, Tiwari et al.. State Fauna 

Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 280. 

Material examined : SOUTH INDIA : Tamil 
Nadu : 13 workers, Salem, Il.ii.l969, Sanyasimalai 
Res. Forest, Yercaud, 13. ii. 1969, coll. O. B. 
Chhotani and R. N. Tiwari, 



TIWARI : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 



Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, West Bengal 
and mostly throughout the country. 

210. Paratrechina assimilis (Jerdon) 

1851. Formica assimilis Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci., 17 : 

125, ?. 
1951 . Nylanderia assimilis, Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 

Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 

214. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala (Malabar) 

Remarks : No specimens of this species could be 
available for this study. While describing this 
species under the genus Formica, Jerdon (1851) 
noted that he found it frequenting flowers in 
Malabar, but not abundant. Chapman and Capco 
also mentioned its locality as "S. Hindustan". 

211. Paratrechina yerburyi (Forel) 

1 894. Prenolepis yerburyi Forel, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 

8 : 408, 5, 9, Cf. 
1903. Prenolepis yerburyi, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 

Hymenoptera, 2 : 329, §, 9, cf. 

1 95 1 . Nylanderia yerburyi. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 

Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 

218. 
Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu and Kerala 
(The Nilgiris). Elsewhere : Sri Lanka. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. Bingham (1903) 
mentioned its distribution as "Ceylon; Southern 
India, the Nilgiris". 

44. Genus Plagiolepis Mayr 
1861. Plagiolepis Mayv, Europ. Formicid. : A2,'^,9, <^- 
Type-species : Formica pygmeae Latreille, 1798, from 
Europe. 

212. Plagiolepis jerdoni Forel 

1894. Plagiolepis jerdoni Forel,/ Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 
8 : 416, 5. 

1903. Plagiolepis jerdoni, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 324, 5. 



1951. Plagiolepis jerdoni, Chapman and Capco, Mowogr. 
Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 

214. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala, Maharashtra. 

Remarks : The specimens of this species could 
not be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) and Chapman and Capco (1951) also 
recorded this species under the genus Plagiolepis 
from Travancore, Southern India and Poona, 
Western India. 

213. Plagiolepis rogeri Forel 

1894. Plagiolepis rogeri Forel, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 

8 : 417, §. 
1903. Plagiolepis rogeri, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India. 

Hemenoptera, 2 : 324, 5- 
1951. Plagiolepis rogeri. Chapman and Capco, Monogr 

Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 

214. 
Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kamataka, Western India. 
Elsewhere : Burma. 

Remarks : No material of this species could be 
available for this study. Bingham (1903) mentioned 
its distribution as "Western India, Kanara; 
Tenasserim, Mergui". 



214. Plagiolepis wroughtoni Forel 



1902. 



Plagiolepis rothneyi Forel, 1894, race wroughtoni 

Forel, Ann. Soc Ent. Belg., 46 : 292, §. 
1903. Plagiolepis wroughtoni, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 

Hymenoptera, 2 : 32 1 , 5 . 
1951 . Anacantholepis rothneyi subsp. wroughtoni. Chapman 

and Capco, Monogr. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check 

List Ants Asia), 1 : 213. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu and Kerala 
(The Nilgiris). 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) recorded this species so far only from 'The 
Nilgiris'. 



7-6IZS>UCa\.l9B 



82 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 



45. Genus Anoplolepis Santschi 

1914. Plagiolepis, Subg. Anoplolepis Santschi, Voy. AUuarut 

and Jeanne I, Afr. or. Hym. : 123. 
1925. Anoplolepis, Emery, Genera Insect., 183 : 16. 
Type-species : Formica longipes Jerdon, 1 85 1 , from India, 

215. Anoplolepis longipes (Jerdon) 

1851. Formica longipes Jerdon, Madras J, Lit ScL, 17 •: 
122. '^. 

1903. Plagiolepis longipes, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 

Hymenoptera, 2 : 320, 5- 
1 95 1 . Anoplolepis longipes. Chapman and Capco, Monogr. 

Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 ; 

213. 

1987. Anoplolepis longipes, Taylor, CSIRO Aust. Gi'v-. 

EntomoL, Rep. No. 41 : 56. 
1994. Anoplolepis longipes, Tiwari et ai, State Fauna 

Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 283. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Kerala, West Bengal and 
mostly throughout the country except in the hot 
dry portions of the North-Westem Provinces, the 
Punjab and parts of Central India. 

Remarks : The specimens of this species could 
not be available for this study. Jerdon (1851), 
while describing this species under the genus 
Formica, mentioned its habitat as "Tellicherry" of 
South India. He {op. cit.) further noted "this ant is 
found in all the forests of India living in holes in 
the ground, in tolerable numerous societies, and 
feeding on vegetable secretions". 

46. Genus Formica Linnaeus 

1758. Formica Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 1 : 579. 
Type-species : F. rufa Linnaeus, 1758, from Europe. 

2\6. Formica phyllophila Jerdon 

1 85 1 . Formica phyllophila Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci., 17 : 

125, $. 
1951. Formica phyllophila. Chapman and Capco, Mono^;-. 

Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check List Ants Asia), 1 : 

200. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : South India. 

Biological notes : The little species forms a 
temporary nest between two leaves u.sually, or 



sometimes in a head of flewirs; It lives in small 
soeietiei, and feeds entirely on vegetable secretions 

(Jerdon, 1851). 

Remarks ! No material of this species could be 
available for this study. Jerdon (1851) described 
this speeigs from South India, but no specific 
leeality fflentlehed. Later on, Chapman and Capco 
(1^51) also mentioned its locality as "South India". 

217. Formica vagans Jerdon 

1851. Formica vagans Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. Sci., 17 : 1 24, 

Material ekamlned ! Nil: 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka. 

BioIogicBl notes : It takes up its quarters in any 
sheltered spot in a house, under a box, a stone, a 
hole In the wall, or such like places, and when 
disturbed flits with great speed to attdthel- suitable 
spot. It's society !§ Vify flUfflii=eu§ iii ifldlviduals 
and there are many fefflales and males, sometimes 
with wittgs, at other times without wings. It feeds 
both on vegetable and animal substances (Jerdon, 
1851). 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. While describing this 
species under the genus Formica from South India, 
Jerdon (1851) mentioned that this little ant was 
exceedingly common in the Karnataka. 

VII. Subfamily DOLICHODERINAE Forel 

The species belonging to this subfamily can be 
distinguished at a glance from the subfamily 
Ponerinae on the one hand by there being no 
constriction between the 1 st and 2nd segment of 
the abdomen, and on the other hand from the 
subfamily Formicinae by the anal aperture being 
transverse, and not circular nor ciliated. The head 
is short and broad; the thorax robust, the metanotum 
often compressed and raised {Dolichodenis) or 
spinous (Anetiretus); pedicel 1 -jointed, the node 
placed closer to the abdomen than to the thorax, 
sometimes inclined anteriorly, and often impinging 
on the front of the abdomen, which has a hollow 
anteriorly for its reception; abdomen generally 



TlWARl : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 



83 



gibbous in front (except in Liometopum), broadly 
oval {DoUchoderus, Iridomyrmex); sting not 
modified, but only in one genus {Aneuretus) 
exerted; legs slender {Aneuretus), long and robust 
{Iridomyrmex, Tapinoma), but short and stout 
{Bothriomyrmex, Technomyrmex). 

41. Genus Tapinoma Forster 

1830. Tapinoma Forster, Hyin. Stud., 1 : 43, $, 9. 

Type-species : Formica erraticum Latreille, 1798, from 
Europe. 

218. Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius) 

1793. Formica melanocephala Fabricius, Ent. Syst, 2 : 
353, $. 

1851 . Formica nana Jerdon, Madras J. Lit. ScL, 17 : 125, §. 

1858. Myrmica pellucida Smith, Cat. Hym. Brit. Mas.. 6 : 
124, 5. 

1903. Tapinoma melanocephalum, Bingham, Fauna Brit. 
India, Hymenoptera, 2 : 304, $, 

1930. Tapinoma melanocephalum, Negi et at, J.Bombay 
Nat. Hist. Soc, 34 (1) : 186. 

1 95 1 . Tapinoma (Micromynna) melanocephalum, Chapman 
and Capco, Monogr Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check 
List Ants Asia), 1 : 192. 

1987. Tapinoma melcmocephalum, Taylor, CSIRO Aust. 
Div. EntomoL, Rep. No. 41 : 77. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Karnataka, Tamil Nadu 
and mostly throughout the country. Elsewhere : 
Oceania, South America (Cayenne) and spread 
through the tropics of both hemispheres. 

Remarks : No specimens of this species could be 
available for this study. Jerdon (1851) described 
the species Formica nana from Mysore, South 
India, which was later considered as a synonym of 
T. melanocephalum (Fabr., 1793) by Bingham 
(1903). Subsequently, Negi et al. (1930) also 
recorded this species from Salem Dist., Tamil 
Nadu, South India. 

48. Genus Bothriomyrmex Emery 

1865. Bothriomyrmex Emery, Ann. Mus. Zool. Univ. Nap., 
5 : 117. 

Type-species : Tapinoma meridionalis Roger, 1863, from 
Italy and Spain. 



219. Bothriomyrmex dalyi Forel 

1895. Bothriomyrmex wroughtoni Forel, 1895, race dcdyi 
Forel, / Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 9 : 471, ?^. 

1903. Bothriomyrmex dalyi, Bingham, Fauna Brit. India, 
Hymenoptera, 2 : 307, C. 

1951. Bothriomyrmex wroughtoni subsp. dalyi. Chapman 
and Capco, Monogr Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila (Check 
List Ants Asia), 1 : 188. 

1994. Bothriomyrmex wroughtoni dalyi, Tiwari etal.. State 
Fauna Series 3 : Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8 : 249. 

Material examined : Nil. 

Distribution : INDIA : Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, 
Western India and mostly spread throughout India. 

Remarks : The material of this species could not 
be available for this study. However, Bingham 
(1903) recorded this species from 'Coonoor' of 
South India. 

DISTRIBUTIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE 
SPECIES RECORDED 

Altogether 219 species of ants have been 
reported from Southern India till date. Of these, 
98 species (about 44.75%) are found to be Endemic 
in nature. Of the rest 121 species (55.25%), about 
26 species (21.49%) are found to be cosmopoliton 
and hence are widely distributed throughout India. 
Three other major zones of India, i.e., Eastern 
India, Western India and Northern India, share 
about 20 species (16.53%), 35 species (28.93%) 
and 2 species (1.65%) respectively of the non- 
endemic species. Central India, however, does not 
share any of the non-endemic species except the 
cosmopoliton species. 38 of the non-endemic 
species, comprising about 3 1 .40% are found to be 
sharing more than one major zones of India — 
along with Southern India. 

The strong endemism (44.75%) indicates 
certain factors or barriers, which kept these species 
confined to Southern India only. In order to 
establish the nature of the endemism, 
zoogeographical and ecological study of the 
Endemic species is suggested. Above analysis is 
based on illustrative data in Distributional Table 
No. 1 and Figs. 10 A-B. 



84 



Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 



Pie-Chart showing zone-wise distrlbutlDn 

of species recorded (Non-©ndsmle) 

in Percentage (%) 



N. India 
1.65 



Cosmopoliton 
21.49 



W. India 
28.93 



More than one zone 
31.40 



C. India: Recorded Nil 




E. India 
16.53 



Figure 10 A 



TIWARI : Taxpnqrriic Studies on Anls of Southern India 



85 



in. 



E 

CO 


CO 


E 




(D 




X3 
C 


E 


UJ 


0) 


Ui 


^ 


c 


o 


^ CO 


o 




JO 


F 


</) 


o 




1- 


z 


H— 


CO 




V. 




O) 




o 




.^m* 




C/3 




X 






O 
C3) 



86 Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 

Table 1 : Ant Fauna of Southern India (Insecta : Hymenoptera : Formicidae) Along with their 
Distribution in other regions in India. 



SI. Name of the species Eastern Western Central Northern Southern 

No. India India India India India 



1 



* 



1 . Dorylus (Alapone) orientalis Westwood * * 

2. Aenictus aratus Forel — * 

3. Aenictus brevicornis (Mayr) * * 

4. Aenictus fergusoni Forel * * 

5. Aenictus pachycerus (Smith) — * 

6. Aenictus ceylonicus (Mayr) — * 

7. Aenictus arya Fore! — — 

8. Aenictus clavatus Forel * * 

9. Aenictus clavatus var. kanarensis Forel " — — 

10. Aenictus wroughtoni Forel — * 

1 1 . Aenictus gleadowi Forel — — 

12. Anochetus sedilloti Emery — * 

13. Anochetus mordax Tionisihor^^ — — 

14. Anochetus orientalis kanariensis Forel — * 

15. Anochetus punctiventris Mayr * 

16. Anochetus punctiventris taylori Forel — 

17. Anochetus ruginotis Stitz — 

18. Anochetus rufus (Jerdon) — 

19. Odontomachus haematodes (Linnaeus) * 

20. Harpegnathus saltator Jerdon * 

21. Harpegnathus venator (Smith) * 

22. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) birmana Forel * 

23. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) ocellifera (Roger) * 

24. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) dentilobis Forel — 

25. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) diminuta (Smith) * 

26. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) diminuta 
palliseri Forel — 

27. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) carinata 
Donisthorpe — 

28. Leptogenys (Lobopelta) roberti 
coonoorensis Forel — 



TIWARI ; Taxonomic Studies on AntS of Southern India 87 



~.~-a~Ti .^kt4Mm' -WW I .iH I M II i l HI I 



29. UptQg^iiys (Lohopeha) longiscapus 

Donisthorpe — — — — * 

30, leptogenys (Lobopelta) dalyi Forel — — — — * 

31, Di(iCQmma vagam (Smith) * * — — * 

32. Pigmmnm ntgomm c^ylonmisis Emery — — — — * 
33- Digffmma mgomm var, jerdoni Forel — — — — 

34. Diacamma mgosum var. sculptum (Jerdon) * — — — 

35. PUwamma cyaniventre Andre — — — — 

36. Ectomyrmex anntimiuis (Andr6) — — — — 

37. Ectomyrmex lemwmhoeki (Forel) * — — — 

38. Bothropomm hmryi Donisthorpe — — — — 

39. Bothroponem nibiginosa (Emery) — * — — 

40. Bothroponem sulcata (Frauenfeld) * * * — 

41. Bothroponem tesserinoda (Mayr) * * * * 

42. Bothroponera rufipes (Jerdon) * * — — 

43. Ponera truncata Smith * — — — 

44. Ponera confinis Roger * * — — 

45. Ponem stenocheilos Jerdon — — — — 

46. Ponera sulcato-fossiUatus Forel — — — — 

47. Ponera affinis Jerdon — — — — 

48. Euponera (Trachymesopus) darwini (Forel) — — — — 

49. Cryptopone testacea (Motschulsky) — — — — * 

50. Cryptopone rufotestaceus Donisthorpe — — — — * 

5 1 . Brachyponera jerdoni (Forel) * * — — * 

52. Brachyponera luteipes (Mayr) * * * * * 

53. Brachyponera luteipes var. continentalis 

Karawajew — — — — 

54. Mesoponera melanaria Emery — * — — 

55. Platythyrea sagei Forel — — — * 

56. Platythyrea wroughtoni Forel — — — — 



57. Platythyrea wroughtoni var. victoriae Forel * * — — * 

58. Amblyopone belli Forel — * — — * 

59. Lioponera longitarsus Mayr * * __ — * 

60. Lioponera parva Forel * * — * * 



88 



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61. Tetraponera (Tetraponera) aitkeni (Forel) 

62. Tetraponera (Tetraponera) allaborans 
Walker 

63. Tetraponera (Tetraponera) rufonigra 

(Jerdon) 

64. Tetraponera (Tetraponera) nigra (Jerdon) 

65. Tetraponera (Tetraponera) nigra fergusoni 
(Forel) 

66. Tetraponera (Tetraponera) dijficilis 
longiceps (Forel) 

67. Tetraponera (Tetraponera) rufipes (Jerdon) 

68. Aphaenogaster rothneyi Forel 

69. Apahenogaster beccarii (Emery) 

70. Messor barbarus (Linnaeus) 

71. Pheidole (Pheidole) malinsi Forel 

72. Pheidole (Pheidole) phipsoni Forel 

73. Pheidole (Pheidole) spat hif era Forel 

74. Pheidole (Pheidole) sharpi Forel 

75. Pheidole (Pheidole) hoogwerfi Forel 

76. Pheidole (Pheidole) constanciae Forel 

77. Pheidole (Pheidole) fergusoni Forel 

78. Pheidole (Pheidole) mus Forel 

79. Pheidole (Pheidole) minor (Jerdon) 

80. Pheidole (Pheidole) roberti Forel 

8 1 . Pheidole (Pheidole) providens (Sykes) 

82. Pheidole (Pheidole) malabarica (Jerdon) 

83. Pheidole (Pheidole) diffusa (Jerdon) 

84. Myrmica caeca Jerdon 

85. Myrmicaria brunnea Saunders 

86. Crematogaster wroughtoni Forel 

87. Crematogaster dohrni Mayr 

88. Crematogaster rogenhoferi Mayr 

89. Crematogaster flava Forel 



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TIWARI : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 



89 



90. Crematogaster rothneyi Mayr 

91. Crematogaster subnuda Mayr 

92. Crematogaster ransonneti Mayr 

93. Crematogaster diffusa (Jerdon) 

94. Crematogaster rufa (Jerdon) 

95. Crematogaster brunnea var. nilgirica Forel 

96. Crematogaster brunnea contemta var. 
notabilis Forel 

97. Crematogaster aberrans Forel 

98. Crematogaster aberrans var. inglebyi Forel 

99. Crematogaster ebenina Forel 

100. Crematogaster travancorensis Forel 

101. Crematogaster dalyi Forel 

102. Crematogaster biroi Mayr 

103. Crematogaster biroi var. a/fA;en/ Forel 

104. Crematogaster pradipi sp. nov. 

105. Strumigenys godeffroyi Mayr 

106. Myrmecina urbanii Tiwari 

107. Myrmecina vidyae Tiwari 

108. Monomorium indicum Forel 

109. Monomorium glyciphilum (Smith) 

1 1 0. Monomorium mayri Forel 

111. Monomorium floricola (Jerdon) 

1 1 2. Monomorium latinode Mayr 

113. Monomorium dichroum Forel 

1 14. Monomorium pharaonis (Linnaeus) 

115. Monomorium wroughtoni Forel 

116. Monomorium criniceps (Mayr) 

1 17. Monomorium scabriceps (Mayr) 

118. Monomorium crinicipitoscabriceps (Forel) 

1 19. Monomorium nigrum (Forel) 

120. Monomorium glabrum (Andre) 

121. Monomorium glabrocriniceps (Forel) 

122. Monomorium destructor (Jerdon) 



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123. Monomorium schurri Forel — 

124. Monomorium minutum Mayr ^ 

125. Oligomyrmex leei Forel — 

126. Oligomyrmex iamellifrons (Forel) — 

127. Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) * 

128. Lophomyrmex quadrispinosus (Jerdon) * 

129. Pheidologeton afflnis (Jerdon) 

130. Pheidologeton diversus (Jerdon) 

131. Meranoplus bicolor (Guerin) 

132. Meranoplus belli Forel 

133. Meranoplus carinatus Donjsthorpe 

134. Meranoplus flaviventris Donisthorpe 

135. Meranoplus levis Donisthorpe 

136. Meranoplus rothneyi Forel 

137. Triglyphothrix decamera Fore\ 

138. Triglyphothrix musculus Forel 

139. Triglyphothrix obesa (Andre) 

140. Tetramorium guineense (Fabr.) 

141. Tetramorium pilosus yerburyi Forel 

142. Tetramorium fergusoni Forel 

143. Tetramorium inglebyi Forel 

144. Tetramorium coonoorense Forel 

145. Tetramorium mixtum Forel 

146. Tetramorium wroughtoni (Forel) 

147. Tetramorium rothneyi (Forel) 

148. Tetramorium smithi Mayr 

149. Tetramorium tortuosum var. belli Forel 

150. Tetramorium belgaense Forel 

151. Cataulacus (Cataulacus) latus Forel 

152. Atta domicola Jerdon 

153. Atta dissimilis Jerdon 

154. Oecophylla smaragdina (Fabricius) 

155. Myrmecocystus setipes Forel 



TIWARI : Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 



156. Acantholepis frauenfeldi (Mayr) 

157. Acantholepis opaca Forel 

158. Acantholepis fergusoni Forel 

159. Camponotus angusticollis (Jerdon) 

160. Camponotus compressus (Fabricius) 

161. Camponotus sericeus (Fabricius) 

162. Camponotus rufoglaucus (Jerdon) 

163. Camponotus dolendus Forel 

164. Camponotus paria Emery 

165. Camponotus mendax Forel 

166. Camponotus puniceps Donisthorpe 

167. Camponotus harbatus Roger 

168. Camponotus taylori Forel 

169. Camponotus similis Donisthorpe 

170. Camponotus variegatus (Smith) 

171. Camponotus variegattis somifica Forel 

172. Camponotus mitis (Smith) 

173. Camponotus thraso Forel 

174. Camponotus phragmaticola Donisthorpe 

175. Camponotus strictus (Jerdon) 

176. Camponotus confucii Forel 

177. Camponotus varius Donisthorpe 

178. Camponotus nirvanae Forel 

179. Camponotus timidus (Jerdon) 

180. Camponotus velox (Jerdon) 

181. Camponotus radiatus Forel 

182. Polyrhachis mayri Roger 

183. Polyrhachis dives Smith 

184. Polyrhachis simplex Mayr 

185. Polyrhachis clypeata Mayr 

186. Polyrhachis clypeata var. obtusisquama 
Forel 

187. Polyrhachis exercita Walker 

188. Polyrhachis rostellata Latreille 



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92 Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 



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189. Polyrhdchis rastellata var. corporaali 

Santschi — — — — * 

190. Polyrhachis duodentata DenJsthPfpe — — — — * 

191. Polyrhachis illaudata Walker * — — — * 

192. Polyrhachis latispinosq Donistharpe -^ :^- — — * 

193. Polyrhachis pm0iUa(a ^Q§m — * — * * 

1 94. Polyrhachis piinctillata fergusoni Forel — — — — * 

195. Polyrhachis dives belli Forel — — — — * 

196. Polyrhachis hinghmu Forel — — — ^ — * 

197. Polyrhachis furcata gracilior Forel * ,^^ _^ — t- 

198. Polyrhgchis indificans (Jerdon) ^- __ __ — * 

199. Polyrhachis sylvicola (Jerdon) — — — — * 

200. Polyrhachis tibialis Smith * — — — * 

201. Polyrhachis tibialis v&r. parsis Emery — -^^ — — * 

202. Polyrhachis weberi Donisthorpe — — — — * 

203. Polyrhachis wroughtoni Forel — — — * 

204. Polyrhachis thrinax Roger * — — * 

205. Polyrhachis indica Mayr — — — * 

206. Hemioptica scissa Roger — — — * 

207. Hemioptica aculeata CMayr) — — — * 

208. Paratrechina bourbonica (Forel) * — — * 

209. Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille) * * * * * 

210. Paratrechina assimilis (Jerdon) — — * 

211. Paratrechina yerburyi (Forel) — — * 

212. Plagiolepis jerdoni Forel — * * 

213. 'Plagiolepis rogeri Forel — * * 

214. Plagiolepis wroughtoni Forel — — * 

215. Anoplolepis longipes (Jerdon) ***** 

216. Formica phyllophila Jerdon — — * 

217. Formica vagans Jerdon — — * 

218. Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius) * * * * * 

219. Bothriomyrmex dalyi Forel * * * * * 



TIWARI ; Taxonomic Studies on Ants of Southern India 93 

SUMMAFIY with a new description of Female of a Icnown 

species, Cremdiogaster flava Forel, 1886 

The monograph deals with the ants collected separately. The taxa marked with single asterisk 

from several states of Southern India, viz., Andhra (*) jn "the list of Taxa in Systematic Account", 

Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Main ^re new records from the states of Southern India 

collection on which work is based, is from Tamil ^nd those marked with double asterisks (**) are 

Nadu and Kerala. Jerdon (1851) worked m Indian ^gy^ records from India. Key to the identification 

ants, particulariy from Southern India attd f6cofded ^f t^g wbf ami lies, genera and species dealt in 

46 species under 8 genera from this region. Later t^g monograph ffOffl this region have also 

on RothneyC 1889), Forel (1 900a, b,c),Donisthorpe j^gg^ incorporated. A separate table showing 

(1942c, 1943) contributed much to the ant fauna tj^e distributional pattern of recorded species 

of Southern India. Bingham (1903) also made a zone-wise, along with distributional analysis of 

significant contribution in this dlfgctiott and jj^g ^^j^g {§ also provided to have a glimpse of the 

recorded 498 species from this region. Although distribution of the species at a glance, 
several workers have contributed to the knowldge 

of ant fauna of Southern India, no one has ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

exclusively studied the ant fauna of this region. 

The author acknowledges Dr. J. R. B. Alfred, 

This is the first attempt by the present aythof to ^.^^^^^^^ Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, for 

consolidate the knowledge of ant fauna of Southern ^^.^ assiduous guidance and constant supervision 

India. Altogether 219 species under 48 genera and jj^^o^ghout the course of this investigation. The 

7 subfamilies have been reported in this monograph. ^^^^^^ expresses his sincere gratitude and thanks 

Out of these, 22 spedies Bfi reported for the first ^^ ^ate Dr. O. B. Chhotani, former Jt. Director, 

time from Southern India and 2 gpggiiS are new Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta for his 

records from India. This also includes the inspiration and keen interest in completion of this 

descriptions of Worker and Female of a new ^^^j^ 
species, Crematogaster pmdipi sp. nov., along 

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